LIBRARY.SE is a Swedish open digital library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

FROM BOX COMPASS TO ASTROLABE
by Tatiana ILYUSHINA, Cand. Sc. (Technol.), Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography Long before the Christian era savants of Phoenicia and ancient Egypt, and then of Greece and Rome studied and mapped terrestrial surface. Further progress of humanity - what with humming industries and farming, exploration of new territories and the growth of national states-made such work ever more imperative. Let us take gardening or agri- and viticulture to begin with. Cultivated tracts of land had to be either irrigated or else drained. Such lands were surveyed and marked with a number of reference points for benchmarks. In time these benchmark data were evaluated and brought together for making plans of large territories and whole countries. The very first land-surveying and topographic maps were thus drawn up. Our ancestors used rather primitive, rule-of-thumb methods in determining geographical latitudes and longitudes, and that did not make it possible to pinpoint the exact position of real objects. But people sought to achieve better accuracy through new surveying methods and instruments. Specific sciences appeared, too. One was topography (topographic mapping) - the detailed description or drawing of the features of an area, district, or locality. Special topographical techniques were developed. As a science, topography remained rather primitive until the 19th century and the invention of modern surveying instruments, making accurate plane and profile measurements possible. стр. 98 The scale is an important part of topography. This is the proportion that a plan, map, or model has to what it represents. Maps were drawn accordingly. Say, a military-topographic map that came out in 1846 was scaled 1 inch to 3 versts (1/126,000)*; it had many reruns subsequently and came to be known as the "three-verst" map. The first half of the 18th century was marked by grandiose geographic discoveries and vigorous cartographic activ ... Read more
____________________

This publication was posted on Libmonster in another country. The article seemed interesting to our editor.

Full version: http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/FROM-BOX-COMPASS-TO-ASTROLABE
Sweden Online · 366 days ago 0 123
Link
Permanent link to this publication:

http://library.se/blogs/entry/FROM-BOX-COMPASS-TO-ASTROLABE


© library.se
Professional Authors' Comments:
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Guest comments




Actions
Rate
0 votes

Publisher
Sweden Online
Stockholm, Sweden
20.10.2018 (366 days ago)
 


Who Like this
Likes · Dislikes
 
Empty
ONE WORLD -ONE LIBRARY
Libmonster is a free tool to store the author's heritage. Create your own collection of articles, books, files, multimedia, and share the link with your colleagues and friends. Keep your legacy in one place - on Libmonster. It is practical and convenient.

Libmonster retransmits all saved collections all over the world (open map): in the leading repositories in many countries, social networks and search engines. And remember: it's free. So it was, is and always will be.


Click here to create your own personal collection
FROM BOX COMPASS TO ASTROLABE
 

Support Forum · Editor-in-chief
Watch out for new publications:

About · News · Reviews · Contacts · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Swedish Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2014-2019, LIBRARY.SE is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)


LIBMONSTER - INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK