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Den klassiska processen för bildandet av molekyler

 

Ett foto av en väteatom som tagits med ett fotojoniseringsmikroskop visar att elektroner roterar runt en atoms kärna inte i orbital, utan i banor som bestäms av lagarna i klassisk elektrodynamik.

Om vi ​​ser fullfjädrande banor i bilden och ständigt fortsätter att kalla dem orbitaler är vi enligt vår mening schizofreni.

Valensbindningarna mellan atomer bestäms av deras magnetism.

A. Ampers hypotes om magnetismens natur, baserat på det faktum att atomerna i alla ämnen, som roterar runt en atoms kärna, genererar mikroström, som ger upphov till atomens magnetism, inte är sant.

En atoms magnetism bestäms av laddningsobalans eftersom de negativa och positiva potentialerna verkar vinkelrätt mot varandra.

De elektroner, som i sin rörelse runt kärnan är indelade i två grupper, uppdelade lika (eller med en skillnad i en elektron), alstrar en negativ potential, som för det första sträcker dragkrafterna i kärnan i motsatta riktningar, och för det andra den andra sidan dess potential attraherar de positiva potentialerna hos kärnorna i andra atomer.

 Och i kärnan hos en atom genererar protoner som sträcker sig mellan två grupper av elektroner positiva potentialer, som för det första motverkar kärnans sträckning och för det andra lockar den potentiella verkan vinkelrätt mot elektronens rotationsplan elektroner av andra atomer.

Till exempel, i en vätemolekyl, är två atomer anslutna av två elektroner som lämnar kropparna hos sina atomer och ligger mellan dessa kroppar i den substans som dessa atomer bildar. Det vill säga i planet för rotation av elektroner bildas en kraftring i form av verkliga gravitoner som vilar i ett ämne och polariseras av elektroner, som lockar roterande atomer.

I fallet då exempelvis en syremolekyl bildas av två par elektroner, har molekylens struktur två elektroniska ringar. Och i detta fall adderas kärnan hos atomernas av elektronringarna till repulsionen av ringarna från varandra.

 Om kvävemolekylen bildas med hjälp av tre par elektroner, har molekylens struktur tre elektroniska ringar som utför den starkaste molekylbindningen.

Om atomer som bildar en molekyl har en signifikant skillnad i antalet protoner som lockar elektronringar i deras kärnor, skiftar en atom med ett stort antal protoner i sin kärna elektronringen nära sin kärna. Detta är anledningen till den så kallade elektronegativiteten, som på grund av de omständigheter som har upptäckts skulle vara mer exakt att kalla elektropositivitet.

När det gäller de antiparallella spinnen av valenselektroner, har elektronerna inga spinn, varken roterande eller kvant.

Två atomer bildar en molekyl, om i elektronens rotation är en atom roterad medurs och den andra - moturs. I detta fall rör sig valenselektronerna i sina banor mot varandra. Och med den motgående rörelsen av elektroner, när de lockas av atomkärnor och avstöter varandra, bildas i detta fall en elektronring - en massa två atomer.

Molekyler av substanser är ett system som är i dynamisk jämvikt, där elektronernas attraktion av atomkärnor motverkas av repulsion av gravitoner, vilka motsatta polariseras av kärnor, vilka bildar gränsområdena för kroppens anslutande atomer.

Förresten, 1922 gjorde tyska fysiker O. Stern och V. Gerlach ett experiment, vars syfte var att mäta de magnetiska momenten hos silveratomer.

  Vi är intresserade av denna erfarenhet av det faktum att silveratomen, i detta experiment, visade atomens gravitationspolära modell. Namnet visades att en atom av en atom har en positiv potential och den andra har en negativ potential.

Således bekräftar erfarenheten från O. Shtern och V. Gerlach att atomerna har en gravitationspolär modell.

 

Detaljer finns på författarens hemsida: artikeln The Great Association hölls http://tverd4.narod.ru/100.html

The classic process of the formation of molecules

A photo of a hydrogen atom taken with a photo-ionization microscope shows that electrons rotate around the nucleus of an atom not in orbitals, but in orbits, determined by the laws of classical electrodynamics.

Seeing full-fledged orbits in the photo and stubbornly keep calling them orbitals is, in our opinion, like schizophrenia.

The valence bonds between atoms are determined by their magnetism.

A. Ampere's hypothesis about the nature of magnetism, based on the fact that the atoms of all substances, rotating around the nucleus of an atom, generate microcurrents, giving rise to the magnetism of the atom, is not true.

The magnetism of an atom is determined by charge imbalance because the negative and positive potentials act perpendicular to each other.

The electrons, which in their movement around the nucleus are divided into two groups, divided equally (or with a difference of one electron), generate a negative potential, which, firstly, the forces of attraction stretch the nucleus in opposite directions, and, secondly, the other side its potential attracts the positive potentials of the nuclei of other atoms.

 And in the nucleus of an atom, protons stretched between two groups of electrons generate positive potentials, which, firstly, counteract the stretching of the nucleus, and, secondly, the potential acting perpendicular to the plane of rotation of electrons attract electrons of other atoms

For example, in a hydrogen molecule, two atoms are connected by two electrons that leave the bodies of their atoms and are located between these bodies in the substance that these atoms form. That is, in the plane of rotation of electrons, a force ring is formed in the form of real gravitons resting in a substance and polarized by electrons, which attract rotating atoms.

In the case when, for example, an oxygen molecule is formed by two pairs of electrons, the structure of the molecule has two electronic rings. And in this case, the attraction of the nuclei of the atoms of the electron rings is added to the repulsion of the rings from each other.

 If the nitrogen molecule is formed by means of three pairs of electrons, then the structure of the molecule has three electronic rings that carry out the strongest molecular bond.

If atoms forming a molecule have a significant difference in the number of protons attracting electron rings, then an atom with a large number of protons in its nucleus shifts the electron ring closer to its nucleus. This is the reason for the so-called electronegativity, which, due to the circumstances that have been discovered, it would be more accurate to call electropositiveness.

As for the antiparallel spins of valence electrons, then the electrons have no spins, neither rotational nor quantum.

Two atoms form a molecule, if in the plane of rotation of electrons, one atom has a clockwise rotation, and the other - counterclockwise. In this case, the valence electrons in their orbits move towards each other. And with the oncoming movement of electrons, when they are attracted by atomic nuclei and repel each other, in this case an electron ring is formed - a bunch of two atoms.

Molecules of substances is a system that is in dynamic equilibrium, where the attraction of electrons by atomic nuclei is counteracted by repulsion of gravitons, which are oppositely polarized by nuclei, which form the boundary regions of the bodies of connecting atoms.

By the way, in 1922 German physicists O. Stern and V. Gerlach set an experiment, the purpose of which was to measure the magnetic moments of silver atoms.

  We are interested in this experience by the fact that the atoms of silver, in this experiment, demonstrated the gravitational-polar model of the atom. Namely, it was demonstrated that one region of the atom has a positive potential, and the other has a negative potential.

Thus, the experience put by O. Shtern and V. Gerlach confirms that the atoms have a gravitational-polar model.

 

Details can be found on the author's website: the article The Great Association was held http://tverd4.narod.ru/100.html

 

 

Классический процесс формирования молекул

 

Фото атома водорода, сделанное при помощи фотоионизационного микроскопа, показывает, что электроны вращаются вокруг ядра атома не по орбиталям, а по орбитам, определяемым законами классической электродинамики.

Видеть на фото полноценные орбиты и упорно продолжать называть их орбиталями это, на наш взгляд, похоже на шизофрению.

Валентные связи между атомами определяются их магнетизмом.

Гипотеза А. Ампера о природе магнетизма, основанная на том, что атомы всех веществ, вращаясь вокруг ядра атома, генерируют микротоки, рождающие магнетизм атома, не верна.  

Магнетизм атома определяется зарядовой неуравновешенностью потому, что отрицательный и положительный потенциалы действуют перпендикулярно друг другу.  

Электроны, которые в своём движении вокруг ядра делятся на две группы, поделённые поровну (или с разницей в один электрон), генерируют отрицательный потенциал, который, во-первых, силами притяжения растягивают ядро в противоположных направлениях, а, во-вторых,  другой стороной своего потенциала притягивает положительные потенциалы ядер других атомов.        

 А в ядре атома протоны, растянутые между двумя группами электронов, генерируют положительные потенциалы, которые, во-первых, противодействуют растягиванию ядра, а, во-вторых, потенциалом, действующим перпендикулярно плоскости вращения электронов,  притягивают электроны других атомов. 

Например, в молекуле водорода два атома соединены двумя электронами, которые покидают тела своих атомов и располагаются между этих тел в веществе, которое образуют эти атомы. То есть, в плоскости вращения электронов образуется силовое кольцо в виде покоящихся в веществе и поляризованных электронами вещественных гравитонов, которые притягивают вращающиеся атомы.     

В случае, когда, например, молекула кислорода образуются посредством двух пар электронов, конструкция молекулы имеет два электронных кольца. И в этом случае, притяжение ядрами атомов электронных колец суммируется с отталкиванием колец друг от друга. 

 Если же молекула азота образуется посредством трёх пар электронов, то конструкция молекулы имеет три электронных кольца, осуществляющих самую сильную молекулярную связь.

Если формирующие молекулу атомы имеют значительную разность количества притягивающих электронные кольца протонов в своих ядрах – то атом с большим количеством протонов в своём ядре смещает электронное кольцо ближе к своему ядру. Такова причина так называемой электроотрицательности, которую в связи с открывшимися обстоятельствами точнее было бы назвать электроположительностью.      

Что касается антипараллельных спинов валентных электронов, то у электронов нет никаких спинов, ни вращательных, ни квантовых.

Два атома формируют молекулу, если в плоскости вращения электронов, один атом имеет вращение по часовой стрелке, а другой – против часовой стрелки. В этом случае валентные электроны в своих орбитах движутся навстречу друг к другу. И при встречном движении электронов, когда они притягиваются ядрами атомов и отталкиваются друг от друга, в этом случае образуется электронное кольцо – связка двух атомов.        

Молекулы веществ есть система, находящаяся в динамическом равновесии, где притяжению электронов ядрами атомов противодействует отталкивание встречно поляризованных ядрами атомов гравитонов, образующих пограничные области тел соединяющихся атомов.

Кстати, в 1922 году немецкие физики О. Штерн и В. Герлах поставили опыт, целью которого было измерение магнитных моментов атомов серебра.     

  Нам интересен этот опыт тем, что атомы серебра, в этом опыте продемонстрировали гравитационно-полярную модель атома. А именно, продемонстрировали, что одна область атома имеет положительный потенциал,   а другая – отрицательный потенциал.

Таким образом, поставленный О.Штерном и В.Герлахом опыт, подтверждает, что атомы имеют гравитационно-полярную модель.       

 

Подробности можно посмотреть  на сайте автора: статья  Великое объединение состоялось http://tverd4.narod.ru/100.html

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Den klassiska processen för bildandet av molekyler // Stockholm: Swedish Digital Library (LIBRARY.SE). Updated: 22.11.2018. URL: http://library.se/m/articles/view/Формирование-молекул-Molecule-formation (date of access: 17.08.2019).

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Den klassiska processen för bildandet av molekyler
 

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