LIBRARY.SE is a Swedish open digital library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

Libmonster ID: SE-28
Author(s) of the publication: NATALYA DAVYDOVA, BORIS USTYUGOV

share the publication with friends & colleagues

After the incident on Bolshaya Dmitrovka Street, when two buildings and a part of the street instantly collapsed, professionals are saying in unison: This was the first signal. It is necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of the capital's undercity in order to understand what is really happening down there. And finally to work out rules, obligatory for all, on what may and what may not be done so that living "on the surface" could be free from fear. Meanwhile, the authorities have so far kept silent as residents in the capital are getting accustomed to carefully examining each crack in the asphalt - just in case

The Price of Error Problems connected with the reliability of Moscow's ground did not begin today. In the 1960s, Comrade Mikoyan together with a delegation from the GDR was nearly killed by a chunk of molding that fell off from the ceiling of the Grand Kremlin Palace . Shortly before that event the Kremlin Palace of Congresses was built. Soon it transpired that the new structure, beneath which a 18-meter underground bunker was also built, became a kind of a dam, disrupting the normal flow of underground water. The water took a detour, but because the wooden piles underpinning the ancient Kremlin structures can only live in a humid environment, the old palaces and cathedrals had it tough, to put it mildly. When the authorities realized what they had done, it was too late. As early as 1968, a mere seven years after the Palace of Congresses was erected, the first serious restoration work in the Soviet period had to be done in the Kremlin. It has been regularly restored and reinforced since. The costs are not being made public. According to people who ought to know, the latest restoration of the Kremlin alone cost $290 million.

They say that had not thousands of tonnes of concrete been poured under the Great Kremlin Palace, it would simply have collapsed. This sad story is extremely reminiscent of another, which is unfolding a stone's throw away from the Kremlin on Manezh Square. True, thus far nothing has fallen on people's heads. But the underground retail complex with a multilevel garage bodes its immediate neighbors no good - this only became clear, as usual, after the construction was finished.

Experts point out that the construction adversely affected the geosystems. The outcome? Now, deformation of the giant Moskva hotel building is being recorded by eight special sensors installed by scientists from the Earth Physics Institute. The same equipment is used to monitor the "slippage" of the History Museum building on the square. Geology experts from the Earth Physics Institute believe that the cause of possible upheavals is the barrage effect; that is the say, the drainage of deep layers of soil under the buildings. This results in the formation of underground cavities while ground water changes its direction of movement and washes out the soil in hitherto stable places. Incidentally, something like this can happen at any point in Moscow where active construction is under way.

The Dangers In 1992, a special geological status report was presented to the Moscow city government. It was prepared mainly by people from city design and land survey structures related to the construction complex. This group of far from independent experts made the following conclusions: Nearly half of Moscow's territory (48 percent) is located in geological risk zones. By the year 2010, as a result of human activity, as much as 60 percent of the territory in the capital will be at risk. Scientists also estimated the annual cost for the city of dangerous geological changes that are oftentimes provoked by ourselves: Approximately $900 million rubles (in 1989 prices).

The authorities were also advised that the zones of actual geological risk (where subsidence, landslides, or underflooding have already occurred) are especially frequent in the Central and Eastern Districts, where they take up 83 percent and 77 percent of territory, respectively.

Sinkholes, which usually result from disruption of the hydrodynamic balance (for instance, as a result of drainage of underground water) most often occur in the north-western part of the city: Over the past 25 years, 42 holes have been registered there, some of them leading to accidents. For example, in the spring of 1977, a sink hole in Novokhoroshevsky Proyezd, which in two months reached 38 meters in diameter, destroyed two five-story residential buildings. Also in the north-west, according to geodetic surveys, there are 10 potential "sink" zones. To make matters worse, large and far-from-harmless industrial enterprises are located on them.

To cap it all, there are 15 large sections of deep - up to 100 meters - landslides and approximately 200 sections of potential surface landslides developing. In addition, 40 percent of Moscow's territory (and as much as 80 percent in the Eastern District) is flooded, with ground water reaching most communication lines and basements.

This generally dim picture was accompanied by an even gloomier forecast: If geological risks continue to be ignored in future city construction programs, the situation will very soon get even worse! It seems that the forecast was accurate. The construction boom in Moscow, the high price of land, and rampant incompetence could bring a catastrophe to the city.

Taking a Risk Recently the city authorities announced a plan to undertake several more large construction projects beneath Moscow's Streets.

It is planned to build a 200,000 square meter three-level underground retail and leisure complex on Sparrow Hills (the Moscow mayor invited West Merchant Bank President Richard Bryans to finance the project), in a place where no construction work should be undertaken owing to landslides. The deep-lying tunnel that is going to be built under the Lefortovo area during the construction of the Third Ring Road is also planned in an actual geological risk zone. Today no one is saying how much it will cost to maintain this literally golden tunnel. "Of course, a glazier needs hail," was geologists' comment. The current risky "golden" projects, the list of which could be easily continued, guarantee their builders good money in the future - for keeping their constructions in safe condition.

What is remarkable is that none of these projects went through an independent geological examination. Such a council of experts simply does not exist. In building yet another installation, investors and builders are told what they want to hear by the city authorities in charge of city geology. Of course, one can understand the scientists: Their salary is small while making an examination is well paid (approximately $10,000), and if the results of their work do not please the developers, they will simply find other experts.

A Termite Heap According to scientists, many underground structures in the Russian capital are not unlike termite heaps. Various secret tunnels, cellars, and underground galleries began to be built in Moscow back in the 15th century. Some installations gradually fell into disuse, were filled with sand or debris, and were eroded by water. New ones were built in their place. By the early 20th century, the entire city center was dug through and through in all directions. In the 1940s-1960s, the existing cavities and voids were supplemented by whole underground towns. Huge secret underground complexes still exist in the region of Taganskaya Square and Khamovniki. They are classified secret but are inactive. Instead of digging new catacombs and wasting enormous money on controlling damage from new underground structures, the authorities could easily use the old ones.

It was precisely for this purpose that several years ago, historians, geologists, and simply experts on old Moscow and its underground secrets tried to form the Underground Moscow association. But, first, it so happened that even the useless secret underground caves continue to serve as a feeding trough for many people and they will not give up their source of livelihood to anyone. Second, considerable funds were needed to inventory the underground system.

So everything remains as it has always been: Operators are pumping water at abandoned special installations from a depth of several dozen meters. Meanwhile, a pit 42 meters deep and five and a half meters wide under the Gostiny Dvor renovation project was simply filled with debris. Although it could have been used, for instance, as storage space, which is extremely expensive in the center of the city.

Even so, some underground structures are being used - for instance, Metro workers grow mushrooms in some of the empty premises of the Smolenskaya Metro station.

When the question of underground Moscow crops up, for some reason people start talking about members of the Diggers Association, although not a single professional can describe them as serious people. It is not much of an accomplishment to put on rubber pants, walk through the sewer, and talk on camera about mutant rats. Meanwhile, no one listens to serious scientists - until it is too late.



Permanent link to this publication:

Similar publications: LRussia LWorld Y G


Sweden OnlineContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster:

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

NATALYA DAVYDOVA, BORIS USTYUGOV, MOSCOW'S FAULTY BOTTOM. ECOLOGY // Stockholm: Swedish Digital Library (LIBRARY.SE). Updated: 04.09.2017. URL: (date of access: 29.11.2020).

Found source (search robot):


NATALYA DAVYDOVA, BORIS USTYUGOV → other publications, search: Libmonster SwedenLibmonster WorldGoogleYandex


Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
  • There are no comments yet
Sweden Online
Stockholm, Sweden
1396 views rating
04.09.2017 (1182 days ago)
0 subscribers
0 votes

Related Articles
Three insidious mistakes have crept into the theory of electricity, turning electricity into a riddle that the best minds of mankind still cannot solve. The first mistake is so insidious that the best minds of mankind state: "this cannot be." Meanwhile, maybe. The currents do not run inside the conductors, but around them. The second error follows from the first, because inside the conductors not currents are formed, but free electrons that form resistance for conduction currents. The third error is the fact that conduction currents are carried out not only by electrons, but also by positrons.
Catalog: Physics 
134 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
This note proves that currents in metal conductors do not propagate inside the conductors, but around them. For the first time, this revolutionary idea was expressed by Fedyukin Veniamin Konstantinovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences: “the current of electric energy is not the movement of electrons, the carriers of electricity are an intense electromagnetic field that propagates not inside, but mainly outside the conductor” (2).
Catalog: Physics 
147 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Густав II Адольф
Catalog: History 
207 days ago · From Sweden Online
Абоский мир 1743 года
Catalog: History 
218 days ago · From Sweden Online
Российско-шведские отношения периода первой мировой войны в отечественной историографии
Catalog: Political science 
236 days ago · From Sweden Online
Such is the brief background of the fact that the photon was called the quantum of the electromagnetic wave. And it suited everyone until a half-educated philosopher arrived, who said: gentlemen, let the photon have neither electric nor magnetic charge, and therefore it cannot form the configuration of the electromagnetic wave, where the electric and magnetic components are perpendicular to each other and wave propagation vector. Moreover, this philosopher said that he made a discovery by inventing such a design of an electron and a positron that generates exactly the perpendiculars that are observed in electromagnetic waves.
Catalog: Physics 
242 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
No one doubts the existence of the electronic current, and there is no need to prove it, although the theory of alternating current, based on the assumption that electrons can run in one direction and then in the reverse direction, is clearly erroneous and requires a refutation. To prove the existence of a positron current, it is sufficient to pass the current rectified by the semiconductor bridge through the frame of the magnetoelectric galvanometer in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Both currents will deflect the arrow towards the south pole of the magnet, which corresponds to the charge of the positron.
Catalog: Physics 
253 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
These errors of the modern theory of electricity are connected with the fact that only now physical science, and first of all, quantum physics, began to clarify the nature of the charges of electrons and positrons. It turned out that there are no specific electric charges in nature, because an electron - by 2/3 of its volume - is a magnetic dipole of the north pole, called a minus, and a positron is a magnetic dipole of the south pole, called a plus. Each charge generates 1/3 of the volume of the magnetic induction of the opposite pole. Moreover, a larger magnetic charge is considered an electric charge, and a smaller magnetic charge is considered to be the magnetic component of the charges, which, when current flows in the conductor, generates speraloid lines of magnetic induction.
Catalog: Physics 
263 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
In the modern theory of electricity, the conduction current is considered to be the current of free electrons. And the theory of alternating current is based on the assumption that electrons can change the direction of motion in the opposite direction. The fallacy of these theories is revealed if we consider the operation of alternators with a grounded neutral conductor, as is done in all industrial electrical installations.
Catalog: Physics 
268 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Н. С. ПЛЕВАКО, О. В. ЧЕРНЫШЁВА. Можно ли стать шведом? Политика адаптации и интеграции иммигрантов в Швеции после второй мировой войны
Catalog: Military science 
271 days ago · From Sweden Online

Libmonster is a free tool to store the author's heritage. Create your own collection of articles, books, files, multimedia, and share the link with your colleagues and friends. Keep your legacy in one place - on Libmonster. It is practical and convenient.

Libmonster retransmits all saved collections all over the world (open map): in the leading repositories in many countries, social networks and search engines. And remember: it's free. So it was, is and always will be.

Click here to create your own personal collection

Support Forum · Editor-in-chief
Watch out for new publications:

About · News · Reviews · Contacts · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Swedish Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2014-2020, LIBRARY.SE is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)