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The problem of the influence of ancient Iranian, including Zoroastrian, mythologies and images on the religious beliefs of the Eastern Slavs continues to occupy both philologists and historians [Toporov, 1989; 1995; Edelman, 2002; Stavisky, 1999]. However, as far as we know, the" Slavic " material was not actually used to reconstruct the very local forms of Zoroastrianism. This article is an attempt to use some data from ancient Russian literature, which may shed light on the formation of the figure of the prophet-founder of Zoroastrianism-Zoroaster (Avest. Zarathustra).

The Slavonic Bestiary by O. V. Belova contains the following article: "ZORO-ASTER (var-t zoroast, Q. V. 3: 32ob) - a bird that fades on Good Friday and comes to life on the day of the Resurrection of Christ. Zoroast there is a certain so called bird it is found in Arabia JMaT such are the most prudent j blagoomobrazovatelny passions hr with tovyh image and that eliko lives and toliko on every year aki in the days of ty ... si is in the most passionate so with trazhdet image m such egda bo will come de n great heel of remembrance saving x passion and Christ x j o t that days it is not yast nii pie T, nor the same poe t but prostratishi krile their likeness m yak kr s t and on the tree clung hanged t and byvaye t taya aki byzdykha na i doto l tako remains unshakeable until the Day of the Resurrection of Christ. Then at the very moment of the day when the pack comes to life, it will begin to have fun j petit veleglassno j taco for every year jmat in the days of you to create before you live jmat. Q. V. 3: 32ob " [Belova, 2000, p. 126].

This story may be interesting, at least because it is the only reference to Zoroaster, the legendary teacher of the Iranian religion (Avest. Zaraustra), as about a bird. In addition, no less interesting is the connection of Zoroaster with Christ, more precisely - with the liturgical cycle of Holy Week.

Where could such a plot come from?

The source of this mysterious interpretation, listed in the article as Q. V. 3: 32, is the "Book of Natural History" - " a compilation of Peter's time... authorship is sometimes attributed to Nikolai Spafarii... A collection of diverse information about wildlife, rich in quotations from liturgical books, patristics, and works of ancient writers... cosmographies, history and Russian realities "[Belova, 2000, p. 20].

The fact that the text containing the story of the "Zoroaster bird" is clearly compilative leads the search for the source to a bad infinity of protographs, each of which may also turn out to be a compilation.

The reference to the possible authorship of Nicholas Spafarii (1636-1708) does not clarify the situation either. Was Spafarius the author of the Book of Natural History? Although many researchers tend to recognize its authorship [for a discussion, see Belobrovaya, 1978, p. 9], this recognition is somewhat problematic in relation to the above fragment.-

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new ones. It is known that Nicholas Spafarius received a versatile secular education in Constantinople and Italy, studied theology, philosophy, literature, history, and spoke several European and Eastern languages. The texts of his books are full of quotations from Plato, Aristotle, and other philosophers and scientists of ancient and medieval times. Could Spatharius not have known who Zoroaster was? The figure of Zoroaster was quite well known to the book people of the mid-seventeenth century, both in Constantinople and in Italy. Apart from ancient authors who mentioned Zoroaster as a magician and teacher of the faith (Plato, Pliny, Plutarch), his name was also popular among authors of the XIV - XVII centuries: the Byzantines Pletho and Gennadius Scholarius, the Italian humanists Marsilio Ficino and Pico Della Mirandola, and others (Stausberg, 1998).

The name of Zoroaster and related ancient traditions were also known in Russia thanks to numerous translations of the "Chronicles" of the Byzantine historian George Amartol 1 and their compilations. For example, in the Chronicler of the Hellenes and Romans, a compilation chronograph of the fifteenth century, Zoroaster ("Zoroaster") is described, in full agreement with the text of the Chronicle of Amartolus, as a famous astronomer, a descendant of King Ninus and Semiramis, who, being" consumed from the fire of heaven", bequeathed to preserve his deified bodies. bones [Letopisets..., 1999, p. 10].

However, even knowing who Zoroaster was, Spafarius could easily have inserted the" bast " about the Zoroaster bird into his compiler string. It is known that Spafarii was a rather sloppy compiler at times [On Spafarii's compiler activity, see Belobrovaya, 1978, p. 20]. Nor should it be forgotten that Nicholas Spafarius was a man of the seventeenth century, an era whose ideas about scientific rigor and reliability differed significantly from those of today. "The Bird of Zoroaster" could quite peacefully coexist in the Baroque treatise with Zoroaster, the magician and soothsayer. For example, the "Pharaoh", known to Slavic scribes as the "king of Egypt", also appears in the alphabet books of that period as a certain "bodly taurus" (although sometimes with the mark "egi", i.e. "Egyptian") [Belova, 2000, p. 253].

Finally, it is possible that this bird was named "Zoroaster" by mistake - whether by Spafarius himself, or by another author of the "Book of Natural History", or by an unknown copyist. This is supported by the variability of the name forms of mythical creatures noted by O. V. Belova in the monuments of Slavic literature: "the original name can change beyond recognition, and not only as a result of its alienness to the Slavic tradition (incomprehensible word forms are more easily changed), but also as a result of gradual "mastering" of a foreign language vocabulary and attempts to reveal the internal form of the word"[Belova, 2000, p. 35]. For example, the name of the bird Phoenix could appear in various texts as athenik, then as finiza, then as finist or fix [Belova, 2000, p. 35]. Under the name "Zoroaster", another mythical bird could thus be indicated, for example, the gonostar, which is mentioned in the same dictionary entry.: "During the terrible week, we went to listen to the gonoster. He sang from Maundy Thursday to Christ's Day, only two days. What a bird, no one has seen" [cit. by: Cherepanova, 1983, p. 16-17].

Despite the obvious consonance of the names " Zoroaster "and" Gonostar " and the typological proximity of both images (connection with Holy Week), the differences between them are no less obvious. The Zoroaster bird lives in Arabia, the gonostar-in the Russian North; Zoroaster is silent precisely on those days of Holy Week, in which the gonostar sings. In addition, the assumption that the "Zoroaster" of the "Book of Natural History" meant a gonostar or other mythological bird is just as likely as its name.-


1 In the Russian translations of the Chronicle, Zoroaster is designated as "zorozvezdnik", "slavny Persky zvezdozakonnik" [Dictionary..., 1990, article "Zorozvezdnik"].

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noe: that the legend of gonostar is a folklore echo of the book legend of the bird Zoroaster.

Without denying the possibility of the appearance of the "bird of Zoroaster" as a result of an error of the author of the" Book of Natural History " or its copyist, we will try to show, by way of hypothesis, that this mythological image could well go back to a different image of Zoroaster/Zarathustra than the one that was known to ancient authors and influenced Byzantine and Modern European ones-up to the first translations of the Avesta in the XVIII century - ideas about it.

In order to find out what kind of image it was, let's look at two consecutive elements in the plot about the "bird of Zoroaster":

1. connection of the image of Zoroaster with the image of Christ and the passion of Christ;

2. the image of Zoroaster as a pteromorphic deity.

Connection of the image of Zoroaster with the image of Christ and the passion of Christ. The image of Zoroaster as a kind of forerunner of Christ appears in Gnostic texts as early as the first and second centuries A.D. In the Apocrypha of John from Nag Hammadi, which tells about the secret teaching of Jesus, which "he taught John, his disciple" (1.1 - 5), there is a reference to the " Book of Zoroaster "(19.10) [Apocrypha of John..., 1989, p. 195,209]. In Manichaeism, Zoroaster is placed on a par with Christ as the forerunner of the prophet Mani; in one of the Manichaean hymns, this is "confirmed" by the words of Jesus himself: "Zoroaster (Zrhwst) descended into the Persian kingdom (p'rs shrd'ryft). He has declared the truth." by: Andreas and Henning, 1932, S. 872-881].

This mythologeme of continuity between Zoroaster and Jesus survived the period of opposition to Gnosticism and Manichaeism by early medieval Christian authors and from the sixth and seventh centuries. it was further developed by Syrian Christians. Theodoro Bar Konai (second half of the eighth century) describes the plot of the prophecy of Zoroaster (Zardusht) about Jesus - including the passion that Jesus is destined to suffer: "Then they will seize him and crucify him on a tree, and the earth and heaven will sit down to mourn for him, and generations of people will mourn for him." At the same time, Bar Konai (or an unnamed author he quoted) Zoroaster is no longer just a forerunner of Christ, but is almost completely identified with him: "He [Christ] will come from my lineage and my family. I am he, and he is I; he is in me, and I am in him.... He is the King of Kings, and all kings take the crown from him. I and He are one." by Bidez and Cumont, 1938, p. 126-127]. The same "prophecy of Zardusht", with slight variations, is found in the Armenian Gospel of Childhood, written around the same time, and in the later "Book of the Bee" of Solomon of Basra (XIII c.); it is also mentioned in Bar Ebrei (XIII c.) and in a number of other texts (Bidez and Cumont, 1938, p. 133-135).

Could the compilers of the "Book of Natural History" or the source from which they drew the image of the "bird of Zoroaster", sympathizing with the torments of Christ, be familiar with this plot? The possibility of such an acquaintance is quite likely. The Syriac Christians were not only Nestorians - many of them were also Melkites (Orthodox). Although the Greek or Slavic lists of the " prophecies of Zoroaster "are currently unknown, representatives of the Russian book culture of the XII-XVII centuries were familiar with the story of the prophecy by the Persian" teachers of the law " about Christ (one of whom Zoroaster was considered). This is evidenced by the repeated indirect references of the Church fathers to this prediction: John Chrysostom (Horn, in Matth., 6,3), Ephraim the Syrian ("Fifteen Hymns", XV, 4-7), etc. This story was developed in even more detail in the apocryphal literature. So, in the "Legend of Aphrodite the Persian", whose oldest translation into Old Slavic dates back to the XII-XIII centuries, it is said that " they first learned about Christ in Persis. Nothing is hidden from the teachers of the law, who were famous for their prophecies in it "[Legend..., 1999, p. 728]. The popularity of this work is evidenced by the controversy against it in the XVI century. Maxima

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A Greek who asked, not without sarcasm, how the Persian "magi" (i.e., Zoroastrians), being pagans, though "wise in starry art", found out about the atoning sacrifice of Jesus and the passions he endured [Monk Maxim the Greek..., 1897, p.115].

By the way, the localization of the "bird of Zoroaster" in Arabia is also connected with the church tradition about the adoration of the Magi( magi): starting with Justin the Great Martyr, the Church fathers called Arabia the land of magi. However," Arabia", like" India", was interpreted quite widely by ancient authors, including also the Iranian lands, and Cyril of Alexandria called all of Persia Arabia (Centini, 1997, p. 83).

Thus, there is reason to believe that the part of the story about the "bird of Zoroaster", which concerned the connection of Zoroaster with Christ and his passion, goes back to the widely circulated apocryphal sources that could be known to the compilers of the "Book of Natural History".

Let us now consider the second, more complex point - the interpretation of the image of Zoroaster as a bird.

The image of Zoroaster as a pteromorphic deity. Although Zoroaster (Zarathustra) does not appear as a bird in the Avesta itself, interesting parallels are found in Zoroastrian writings in Middle Persian.

Thus, in the ninth - century" Zoroastrian encyclopedia " - Denkarta-there is a legend about how the immortal soul (fravashi) The Zoroaster created by Ahura Mazda was placed on the sacred Haomu plant and placed in the care of a pair of nesting birds brought to the top of Haoma by the deities Vohuman and Ardvahisht (Denkart, VII, 2.22 - 28). This story is also found in another Pahlavi work, Zatsprama (13, 4), more concisely - and without mentioning birds.

The immortal soul-fravashi was depicted in the Avesta as a winged being (Farvardin-Yasht, 70). The connection of the Zoroastrian fravashi with the birds that hatch their chicks on the top of Haoma is quite obviously part of the ideas that are found in various peoples about the bird as the embodiment of the individual soul and/or as the totem of the tribe, the first ancestor (Ivanov and Toporov, 1991, p.347). No less famous are the mythological archetypes associated with the birth of a deity or hero from a bird's egg or in a bird's nest. Although the Denkart and Zatspram say that only the spiritual essence of Zoroaster was located in Haom, it is possible that in the older layers of the Zoroaster myth he was represented as a pteromorphic deity.

This assumption is not so improbable as it may seem at first glance. It is, in particular, consistent with the image of a bird preaching the Avesta found in Zoroastrian texts.

First of all, the head (ratu) of all Karshipta birds is called such a bird. She "brought the [Zoroastrian] faith to the shelter that Iima built, spread it, and there they say the Avesta in the language of birds" (Bundahishn, 5) [Zoroastrian texts..., 1997, p.292]. "The refuge that Yima built" is the fortress of Vara described in the Avestan work Videvdat (II, 20-24). Axypa Mazda initially wanted to assign the mission of spreading the faith (daendm mdzdayasnim vi-barat aetaeshva) to King Yima himself, but he refused (Videvdat, II, 3). As the propagator of the faith in Vara, Karshipta is mentioned together with the spiritual pastors of the inhabitants of Vara: Zoroaster and his son Urvatat-nara (Videvdat, II, 42-43).

Was Karshipta meant as a real bird (for example, a magpie [Steblin-Kamensky, 1993, p. 197]), or is Karshipta, in the words of A. E. Bertels, an "angel bird", one of the variations of the image of the Simurgh bird [Bertels, 1997, p. 178]?

The second option seems more likely, since in the "Bundahishne" besides Karshipta, other birds that spread the Avesta are also named: Ashozisht, Zobar-

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wachman, Shok (Bundahishn, 6), although it seems to refer to the same bird or pteromorphic deity. Since none of the known religions of antiquity attributed to the bird the function of spreading the religious canon, it is logical to assume that these birds could act as a kind of reincarnation of Zoroaster.

This pteromorphy of Zoroaster, of course, does not correspond to the canonical figure of Zarathustra as a prophet and founder of the faith. However, as we have already noted (Abdullaev, 2001), this figure itself is of rather late origin. Until the fourth century A.D., there is no mention of Zarathustra in the Iranian epigraphic monuments, as well as in external-Old Testament and Indian testimonies about the religion of the ancient Iranians.2

The only exception is the ancient sources, starting, apparently, with Plato, who mentioned in the dialogue "Alcibiades the First" (Alc.l21d-122b) about teaching the heirs of the Persian throne "the magic of Zoroaster, the son of Oromazd", the essence of which is "in the worship of the gods" (ων o μεν μαγειαν τε διδασκει την ΖOπoαδτρυ τυ 'Ωρoμα σoυ - ' εστι δε τυτo θεων θεραπεια). As A. Momigliano correctly noted, the name of Zoroaster became famous in the ancient world only thanks to Plato and only after him (Momigliano, 1975, p. 142). All other ancient accounts of Zoroaster and his "magic" - up to and including the eighth - century Byzantine historian Agathias-will be based on this mysterious Platonic reference, with only minor variations. In the Iranian epigraph, the name of Zoroaster is first mentioned in Manichaean texts in the Iranian languages: Sogdian and Middle Persian (cf. - Persian zrhwst, Sughd 'z-r'wsc) [Andreas and Henning, 1932, p. 872-881; Henning, 1944, p. 137]; no other references to this prophet in the Iranian epigraphy before the advent of Islam were found. In this connection, it is noteworthy that M. Mole concluded that the term "Zarathustra" in the Avesta was originally an appellative, a designation of the highest rank in the priestly hierarchy, and not the personal name of the prophet; the idea of Zarathustra as the founder prophet arose much later, in the course of adaptation to Islam (Mole, 1963, p. 25-26)..

At the same time, not only in the Avesta, but also in external sources, the cult of the divine bird in the Iranian religion is fairly reliably attested. It is interesting, for example, the message of Flavius Philostratus that from the ceiling of the hall in which the king of the Persians judges, "four golden vertexes are suspended, reminding him of Adrasteus, so that he does not become arrogant in front of people. It is said that magicians who have access to the palace hung these birds here, called "tongues of the gods"" (Flavius Philostratus, 1985,1, 25). Although it is not mentioned in Zoroastrian texts, it may well have been valued by magicians not only as a "divinatory" bird, but also as a bird that destroys a large number of ants, which in Zoroastrianism were considered the creation of an evil spirit.

There are numerous images of divine birds - first of all, the Senmurv (Simurgh) - on the backs of the throne, crowns, clothing of Iranian monarchs, and royal dishes (Trever, 1937, pp. 31-53). The two-winged symbol-apparently a "truncated" image of the divine bird-is found both in Iran (in the carved piece of Ctesiphon, in the Sassanids-


2 However, in 1972, the well-known Iranian scholar H. V. Bailey mentioned a certain "piece of paper from Central Asia with a text close to the inscriptions of the Kushan period", which "was identified as a Bactrian [text], but still, after more than half a century after its discovery, has not been published". It allegedly reported that "from the lands of Saka, that is, inhabited by Saka peoples, in the Kushan period, two groups of magi-priests bearing the ancient name of magu migrated to north-west India, one of whom worshipped Mihira-...and the second-Jaraiastra", which H. W. Bailey deciphers respectively as Mitra and Zarathustra (Bailey, 1972, p. 107). Nevertheless, it is possible that Jarasastra-Zarathustra, who was worshipped by magicians, could be both a prophet and a deity. Unfortunately, we were unable to find any other references to this "Bactrian fragment"; apparently, it was never published.

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gemstones), and in Central Asia (on wall paintings in Balalyk-tepe, in the sculpture of Zar-tepe) [Pugachenkova, 1998, pp. 58-59]. It is possible that some of these images may have been symbolic representations of Zoroaster, whose images are not recorded before the Islamic period - apparently, they simply did not exist.

Consequently, in some part of the Zoroastrian tradition, Zoroaster may have been perceived as a pteromorphic deity.

However, how could this tradition have reached the Russian scribes?

Indeed, the surviving Greek, Syriac, and Byzantine sources, which could have been used by the compilers of the Book of Natural History, do not provide anything to answer this question. But, perhaps, these sources were not the only channel through which in Russia they got acquainted with Iranian mythology. It is known that the ancient and early medieval Iranians, " living for a long time in the neighborhood of the ancestors of the Slavs and Finno-Ugric peoples, and then with the Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes... they entered into complex relationships with them", which were reflected "in the languages, mythology and cultures of the Eastern Slavs "[Stavisky, 1999, p. 19].

In this regard, the hypothesis of the identity of the Simurgh and the Slavic deity Simargl, whose idol, as reported in the "Tale of Bygone Years" under 980, was installed by Prince Vladimir among six or seven "idols" on the hill "outside the courtyard of the teremny", deserves attention. This identification of Simargl with Simurgh, supported by most scientists (A. S. Petrushevich, D. Worth, K. V. Trever, B. A. Rybakov, V. N. Toporov, B. Ya. Stavisky), suggests that the mythology of the Eastern Slavs was penetrated by echoes of the Iranian story about the divine bird. It is very likely that the image of the Simurgh-Simargla could include some elements of the traditions of Zoroaster.

Thus, it is possible, although with a high degree of hypotheticism, to assume that the idea of a pteromorphic Zoroaster, reflected in the Denkarta (VII, 2.22 - 28), could have penetrated the mythology of the Eastern Slavs through the circle of images associated with the Simurgh and found reflection in the Old Russian literature. As a result of the gradual transformation under the influence, on the one hand, of popular legends about the " birds of paradise "(Phoenix, Cyrinus, Alkonost, etc.), and on the other - of the Greek and Syriac apocrypha about Zoroaster-the soothsayer, and the image of the "bird of Zoroaster", which is found in the "Book of Natural History", could arise.

Of course, they can point out a number of shortcomings of the hypothesis proposed by us: its applicability only if the image of the "Bird of Zoroaster" was not its own invention or simply a mistake of the author or authors of the "Book of Natural History"; the absence of a similar image in other works of pre-Petrine bookishness; the insufficiency of the fragment " Denkart "(VII, 2.22-28). Recognizing these shortcomings, we still believe that our hypothesis allows us not only to partially explain the image of the "bird of Zoroaster", but also to take a fresh look at some stages of the formation of the Iranian religion and its influence on the mythology of the Eastern Slavs.

ABBREVIATIONS

JRAS - Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London.

list of literature

E. Abdullaev Platonov's Myth of the Magician Zoroaster and His Fate in the Ancient and Iranian world.Problemy istorii, filologii, kul'tury [Problems of History, Philology, and Culture]. Issue X. Moscow-Magnitogorsk: Magnitogorsk State University Publishing House, 2001.

page 142


Apocrypha Ioanna [Apocrypha of ancient Christians: Research, Texts, Comments]. Moscow: Mysl, 1989.

Belobrovaya O. A. Lichnost ' i nauchno-prosveshchskie trudy Nikolay Spafarii [Personality and scientific and educational works of Nikolai Spafarii]. Aesthetic treatises / Preparation of texts and introductory articles by O. A. Belobrova. L.: Nauka, 1978.

Belova O. V. Slavic bestiary. Dictionary of Names and Symbols, Moscow: Indrik, 2000. Bartels A. E. Artistic image in the art of Iran IX-XV centuries (Word, picture). M.: Vostochnaya Literatura, 1997.

Zoroastrian texts. Judgments of the Spirit of Reason (Dadestan-i menog-i hrad). Creation of the Foundation (Bundahishn) and other texts. The publication was prepared by O. M. Chunakova, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, 1997.

Ivanov V. V., Toporov V. N. Ptitsii [Birds] / / Myths of the peoples of the world. Encyclopedia. In 2 volumes (2nd ed.). Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya, 1991.

Monk Maxim the Greek slovo obrazitelno vkupe i deprav'no lizhivago pisaniya Afrodityanina Persiyanina zlomudrennago [The word is accusatory together and corrupting of the false writings of Aphrodite the Evil-wise Persian]. Maxim the Greek, published at the Kazan Theological Academy, Part III, 2nd ed. Kazan: Kazan Theological Academy, 1897.

Chronicler of the Hellenic and Roman times. In 2 vols. Vol. 1. St. Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin, 1999.

Pugachenkova G. A. Dipterous symbol in the art and numismatics of Iran and Central Asia / / Numismatics of Central Asia. III. Collection of articles. Ed. acad. Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan E. V. Rtveladze. Tashkent: OFSET-PRINT, 1998.

The legend of Aphrodithian the Persian, copied from Philip the Presbyter, who was synkel under the great John Chrysostom. On the Nativity of Christ and on the star, and on the worship of the Magi / / Milkov V. V. Old Russian Apocrypha. St. Petersburg: RGHI Publishing House, 1999.

Dictionary of the Old Russian Language (XI-XIV centuries). member-cor. Academy of Sciences of the USSR R. I. Avanesov. In 10 vols. Vol. 3. Moscow: Russian Language, 1990.

Stavisky B. Ya. The Iranian world in the history of Ancient Russia // East (Oriens). 1999. N 4.

Steblin-Kamensky I. M. To an excerpt from Videvdat (Fragment 2) / / Avesta: Selected hymns: From Videvdat. Translated by I. M. Steblin-Kamensky, Moscow: Druzhba narodov Publ., 1993.

Toporov V. N. Ob iranskom elemente v russkoi dukhovnoi kul'tury [On the Iranian element in Russian spiritual Culture]. Reconstruction of the ancient Slavic spiritual culture: sources and methods, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1989.

Toporov V. N. Iz "russko-persidskogo divana": Russkaya skazka * 301 A I "Novella o Yeruslan Lazarevich" - "Shah-nama" and Avestan "Zam-yazasht-yasht" (Ethno-cultural and historical perspective) / / Ethno-linguistic and ethno-cultural history of Eastern Europe, Moscow: Indrik, 1995.

Trever K. V. Sanmurv-Paskudzh, sobaka-ptitsa. L.: Gosudarstvenny Ermitazh, 1937.

Flavius Philostratus. The Life of Apollonius of Tyansky, ed. prepared by E. G. Moscow: Nauka, 1985.

Cherepanova O. A. Mifologicheskaya leksika Russkogo Severa [Mythological vocabulary of the Russian North].

Edelman D. I. Iranskie i slavyanskie yazyki: Istoricheskie otnosheniya [Iranian and Slavic Languages: Historical Relations]. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 2002.

Andreas F. C., Henning W. Mitteliranische Manichaica aus Chinesiscch-Turkestan. В.: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1932 - 1934.

Bailey H. W. A Half-Century of Irano-Indian Studies //JRAS. 1972, N 2.

Bidez J., Cumont F. Les mages hellenises : Zoroastre, Ostanes et Hystaspe d'apres la tradition grecque. T. II. P.: Belles Lettres, 1938.

Centini M. La vera storia dei Re magi: DaW Orienle alia ricerca del Re Bambino. Torino: Edizione Piemme, 1997.

Henning W. The Murderer of the Magi // JRAS. 1944, N 3 - 4.

Mole M. Le probleme Zoroastrien et la tradition mazdeene. Paris: Presses univ. de France, 1963.

Momigliano A. Alien Wisdom: the Limits ofHellenization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Stausberg M. Faszination Zarathushtra: Zoroaster und die europaeische Religionsgeschichte der fruehen Neuzeit. Teil 1. Berlin-New York: de Gruyter, 1998.


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