Libmonster ID: SE-284


Candidate of Historical Sciences

Buganda, Cabarega, Ukerewe-these words give off the heady aroma of Inner Africa. Only a century and a half ago did the first European hear these names, which are closely related to the phenomenon of the longest river in the world - the Nile River. The search for its origins was still occupied by Egyptian and Greek civilizations, but the desire to understand where and how the great river was born reached its apogee in Europe of the XIX century. However, surprisingly, despite the fact that the origins were discovered in the depths of Africa, in the mass consciousness the Nile continues to be associated only with Egypt.

In September 2007 I went to Uganda with like-minded people. Our team consisted of 13 Russian citizens (in addition to Moscow, Yekaterinburg and Novosibirsk were represented), one Latvian and two Ugandans-a virtuoso driver Isaac from Jinji and a translator Oliver, who knows, in addition to her native Lugisu, Luganda, Swahili and English.

Part of the expedition, focused on exploring the historical, ethnic and natural diversity of Uganda, included trips to the source of the Nile and the Murchison Falls located downstream. Thus, we decided to "cross" our paths with famous Europeans-first of all with the routes of John Hanning Speke-who discovered the world of Inner Africa and studied the geography of the river, which fed a number of great civilizations.


As I stared out of the plane window at the cloud-shrouded outlines of the African land of Egypt, Sudan, and Northern Uganda, I felt a certain pride that we were not only flying from the place where the Nile flows into the Mediterranean Sea, to its very sources, but also following the path of the legendary Chwezi ethnic group (Bachwezi), who in the area of 1300 They came from the north to the territory of modern Uganda. They seem to have originated from the great Ethiopian civilization of Aksum, and Egyptian frescoes show images of bulls that came with them-with horns spanning up to 3 meters*. Given that the average height of the descendants of Chwezi-Tutsi-is 186 cm, and often reaches more than 2 m, you can imagine what a grandiose spectacle the giant people were with their herds of such animals.

Chwezi proved to be the creation of the state of Kitara with its capital in western Uganda - in the area of modern Mubende, where not only earthen fortresses were found, but also mysterious holes in the rock, which are located one after another in a certain order. All of them are about one and a half meters in diameter and go down to a depth of 3 to 7 m. The method of drilling, as well as their purpose, remain debatable, but the locals will offer you a mythological explanation of the phenomenon: when the sky god Gulu was angry with another celestial Valumbe, he sent his brother to kill him. But Valumbe went from the sky to the ground, and then he began to dive under the ground altogether. So there were "Valumbe burrows"...

And not far from Kampala, in the town of Luzira, a terracotta figurine of a man was discovered, which is comparable to the Chwezi culture and has no analogues. If the" hairstyle "of the character (numerous "African pigtails") and his neck "bracelets" (as in Maasai women) can be associated with Negroid peoples, then a protruding chin and eyes, like a resident of the Pyrenees, can be associated with Caucasian ones...1 No wonder, according to local lore, the Chwezi were much lighter skinned than the local peoples...

The Bachwezi ruled the state for about 150 years and disappeared as suddenly as they appeared - they were replaced by the Nilotic Luo, who conquered Kitara and formed Bunyoro. The vast state was divided: principalities such as Nkore and

* These Ankole bulls are often referred to as"Tootsie bulls".

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Buganda 2. At the same time, two high-born families (their descendants became known as Tutsis) moved south. The nomadic Tutsis chose hilly areas for their pastures and settlements, which the Hutpu autochthons avoided. The current Ugandan President, Ioweri Museveni, is also a descendant of Chwezi3.


...The next morning we landed on Ugandan soil, in one of the historical capitals of Uganda - the city of Entebbe. Here we visited the botanical garden, founded in 1898 on the shore of Lake Baikal. Victoria (or Ukerewa in the Luganda language). The rich flora and fauna of the garden made it very likely that some early films about the "jungle hero" Tarzan 4 were shot in Entebbe.

With an area of 69 thousand square kilometers, it is the largest in Africa and the second largest freshwater lake in the world (after Lake Baikal). The Great in Canada). Here we tasted a very tasty fish from the cichlid family - tilapia, whose gastronomic qualities were so loved by foreigners that it was brought to Central America and Europe, and it is also bred in Russia. Surprising features of the behavior of some tilapia species that carry their offspring in the oral cavity: after sweeping out the eggs, the female first takes it, and then the egg-shaped spermatophore, which she "takes" for eggs and thereby fertilizes real eggs-also in her mouth. When the fry appear, it spits them out. Such an interesting behavior of some cichlids made them inhabitants of our aquariums.

Despite the presence of the Nile and large lakes with a large fish "population", the cuisine in Uganda is by no means"fishy". To a large extent, this is dictated by the national mentality - for example, representatives of the Toro ethnic group do not eat fish at all.

In the lakes of Uganda, there is another interesting fish - protopter, it can breathe air. Near the lake. Here you can see how fishermen dig out clods of silt in the mud of dried-up reservoirs with fish frozen in them, wrap each" cocoon " with a rope and carry it to the market. The buyer brings it home, puts it in the water and ... the fish starts swimming.

Uganda has very good coffee (it is believed that this culture was brought by bachwezi), which accounts for more than half of the country's exports abroad. The country lies mainly on a mountain plateau at an altitude of 1100-1500 m, which creates excellent conditions for its cultivation.

Then we went to the capital-Kampala ("Antelope Hill"), where they paid tribute to those who created and glorified this country.

The burials of the last four kings (kabaka) of Buganda are accessible to the public and are located in a huge hut built of wood, straw and ficus bark. From the same bark, a special olubugo cloth is made. Now painting on it is the subject of a lively trade.

One of the descendants of the Kabaka lying here, Mutebi II, now rules Buganda as part of Uganda. Inside the hut, the tombs are covered with a palisade of copies and photographs of a tavern of the XIX-early XX centuries. A photograph of one of the Buganda kings gave me a clue as to who was responsible for the appearance of the tavern that met J. R. R. Tolkien. Spica in the famous Robert Rafelson film "Moon Mountains" 5.


The discovery of Uganda by Europeans was due to the search for the source of the Nile. In the 19th century, the Royal Geographical Society of England organized several expeditions led by Richard Bartoi. In February, 1858, he joined with J. R. R. Tolkien. Spicombe discovered Lake Tanganyika, mistaking it for the source of the Nile. But Speke did not believe this and went north, where he reached the lake, which he named "Victoria" - in honor of the English queen. On his next expedition, convinced that the Nile flows from this lake and not from Tanganyika, he and James Grant became the first European to locate the source of the Nile. [6]

Almost the entire territory of the country belongs to the Nile basin. In the north, the Victoria Nile River flows out of Victoria, and flows through the lake. Kyoga and Oz. Alberta, following from where, gets the name Albert-Nile. Victoria-Nile and Albert-Nile together make up the White Nile, which, merging in the Khartoum region with the Blue Nile clouded by Ethiopian mountain streams, turns into the Nile that is known to all travelers in Egypt.7

After Speke, in 1892, the German O. Bauman discovered an even more remote source of the Nile in Burundi.8 In 1903, Nemets was born. Kandt discovered another source in Rwanda 9. Finally, in 2006, with the help of the GPS navigation system, the American K. MacLay found a new source - in Rwanda. Thus, according to the latest data, the Nile (with the Kagera River) is the longest river in the world - 6718 km.


Visiting the shore of Oz. Victoria, we started our journey along the Nile in the area of Jinja, whose name translates from the Lusoga language as "rapids". Standing on the shore of an endless lake, the calmness of which is rarely disturbed by light breezes of wind, it is impossible to imagine how indomitable the river is in its sources: its rapids and waterfalls

* Hello, Uganda! (luganda). In Russian. luganda the prefix "bu -" means belonging to a place ("Buganda" - "land of ganda", shikanie and states, and its parts-monarchies [aida], and in Swahili the same function is performed by the prefix "u -" - so the toponym "Uganda" appeared.

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so significant that it seems that an unknown hand scattered them for the sole purpose of keeping the lake's waters out of the Ugandan savanna, leaving all the life-giving moisture here in the center of Africa. But this was not the case: the vital energy of the Nile is so powerful that every obstacle is overcome in an instant - the roaring and bubbling element overcomes the rapids and falls in waterfalls from the rock that meets on the way.

Starting just above Djindji, we sailed down the Nile on rafts (multi-section inflatable rafts) for more than 30 km. Rafting, like all extreme sports, involves a certain willingness to take risks. If the 1st level of difficulty is easy to pass low thresholds, then to overcome the most interesting ones-the 5th and 6th levels-written statements of the rafting participants are required that they accept any harm to health on their own responsibility.

Before arriving at Wakisu Island, we passed not only four Grade 3 rapids, but also four Grade 5 rapids. After the island, they were less common, but what! - "Overtime "(5th grade)and "Itanda Falls" (6th grade!) - rafts usually pass "only" part of it - " Bad Place "("Bad place", 5th class).

Modern raft manufacturing technologies made it possible to make the first rafting trip on the Victoria-Nile River in July 1996. Since then, Uganda has become a pilgrimage destination for extreme rafting enthusiasts.

As if in order for us to have time to recover, nature placed these rapids at some distance from each other, and our instructor allowed us to swim in the Nile, along with snakebirds... These diving birds, as befits a serious submariner, are "dressed" in all black. After "fishing", the snake rests on the rocks and dries its wings, amusingly spreading them out to the sides.


The next day we went to the mountains-to the huge massif of the extinct Elgon volcano located on the border of Uganda and Kenya. The numerous rivers that run down its slopes are one of the most remote sources of water that saturates the Nile in the lake district. Kyoga. The name of the volcano (the fourth highest (4,321 m) peak in Africa - after Kilimanjaro, Kenya, and Margarita Peak in the Lunar Mountains) comes from the phrase "Oldoinyo-elgon" ("Breast-shaped hills") in the language of the Pokot tribe-the original inhabitants of its foothills Wazungu * drove the Pokot from their native land and began with tribes brought in from other places to cultivate the fertile foothills of Elgon, growing coffee. The Pokot perceived Elgon as their mother's breasts, and the sudden smoke and noise from the volcano's crater was interpreted as a sign that the Mother was angry and chased wazungu away so that her children would continue to drink Elgon's milk ... 10

The road to the camp, from which we were supposed to be led to the mountain, turned out to be quite blurry. We took a long 45-degree climb up the mountain, with drizzling rain and a keen interest in the locals and their huts. I was surprised by the ability of Ugandan women to carry everything on their heads: a bundle, two-meter firewood, a canister of water, a branch of green bananas (weighing at least 10 kg).

On the way to the camp, the rain did not stop (here we understood why the Roly Poly flower that came to us from Africa and lives here in natural conditions is so "wet"). Together with the guide, we still went to the mountains-11 km up the wooded foothills to the Chebonet forest waterfall, which "emerges" in front of the surprised traveler from giant trees hung with lianas and rocks overgrown with mosses and lichens - a beautiful sight! Some members of our expedition did not fail to swim in it.


Continuing on, we soon lost one of our companions, who, as it turned out, went ahead, and then another, who went to look for the "laggard". As a result, on the eve of the gathering darkness, wet and cold, without a guide who went in search of stragglers, we, after a couple of hours of waiting, came to a disappointing conclusion - where to go is unknown, mobile communication does not work, and the compass is forgotten on the bus... In the absence of a detailed map of Elgon, we were guided by the notches in the trees previously left by the guide to mark the path, and came to the highlight of the route-a cave, which showed that we were going the right way. Being in a mountain forest cave in the heart of Africa, at night, and in a state of some uncertainty, I had no choice but to remember some of the inhabitants of these places.

In 1967, the terrible news spread around the world - hemorrhagic fever caused by the Ebola virus was discovered in Africa. Almost simultaneously, in Germany and Yugoslavia, pharmaceutical factory workers engaged in the procedure of collecting kidneys (for the production of polio vaccines) from monkeys exported from Uganda fell ill. The mortality rate for Ebola virus disease is 80-90%. To this day, the origin, spread and treatment of this virus remains a mystery...

Another mystery is the African bear, which, according to zoologists, is not found anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. But the fact of living in the Ugandan and Kenyan foothills of the chemosit bear is not in doubt among either Africans or local Europeans. For example, back in the 60s, hunter Robert Foster, in an interview with our compatriot, journalist Sergey Kulik, confirmed the existence of a chemosite, which he himself had seen twice. S. Kulik conducted a clever experiment: he showed local residents photos of different animals, and they laughed for a long time at the tiger, which they called a striped leopard, did not recognize the walrus and a polar bear, but the Russian brown bear was recognized: "This is chemosit!"11 Standing in the cave, I stared intently into the surrounding forest, hoping to spot the mysterious African bear...

...The guide quickly came out of the forest and headed in our direction: he found the stragglers and led us to the camp.


From Elgon we go northwest to Lyra. The places where you are a peasant in the daytime begin, and in the evening...

* In Swahili and Luganda - "white people", singular - "mzungu".

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In general, European tourists diligently travel around the north of Uganda.

In independent Uganda, several rulers changed over the course of half a century, until the current president, Ioweri Museveni, came to power. This happened in January 1986, when fighters of the National Resistance Army under his leadership removed the head of state - 73-year-old General Tito Okello Lutva. In 1993, the monarchical institutions of Buganda, Batoro, Bunyoro and Busogi were restored in the country.12

In the north of the country, since the late 1980s, the anti-government "Lord's Resistance Army" has been rampaging, led by Joseph Kony, who dreams of establishing a theocratic regime based on the Ten Commandments in the country.

Kamlala has been fighting this pseudo-religious organization for almost 20 years. In 2006, Museveni offered amnesty to its leaders, despite arrest warrants issued by the International Criminal Court in 2005 ("for crimes against humanity and war crimes"). However, peace talks reached an impasse and resumed only in 2008. Currently, militant camps are scattered in the north of Uganda, which is not of interest to the traveler, as well as in parts of Sudan, DRC and CAR.

This is how the north of Uganda exists: with the "Army of the Lord "periodically attacking the" criminal government-supporting " villagers, and the government army conducting punitive operations. The situation in this region of Uganda is characterized by massive refugee flows, especially children, who are taken by the militants to become murderers.13

In Lyra, all I remember was a little girl in a crystal-clear white dress, drinking Mirinda bottle after bottle and clearly posing for a visiting white wazungu, who was enthusiastically spending film shots on her...

After spending the night in the capital of the monarchy, Bunyoro Masindi, we stopped at the park named after Murchison Falls (they are also Cabarega Falls, renamed in honor of the president of the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain R. I. Murchison), and settled down on the banks of the Nile. There are 10 national parks in Uganda. This one is the largest, 3480 sq. km.


Contemplatives of African nature in the first half of the twentieth century saw and described an Africa that we will never see again. In 1929, 70% of Uganda's territory was inhabited by elephants, in 1959 - only 17% (there were 14 thousand of them), 14 but by 1990, for example, in the second largest national park in Uganda - Queen Elizabeth-only about 2.5 thousand elephants were preserved!

Rhinos in Uganda have been exterminated twice. In 1964, 18 white rhinos were brought to Murchison Park, which began to breed 15', but were again destroyed in the 1970s and 1980s. Recently, they have been engaged in livestock restoration and brought several rhinos from outside the country-now there are 6 of them on the Ziva ranch (120 km north of Kampala)16.

There are quite a lot of lions, leopards and zebras in Uganda. The leopard is nocturnal, so it is difficult to see it during daylight hours; we met the lions later, in another park, and the zebras were compactly settled mainly in southern Uganda.

Ugandan fauna is very diverse. Our tents were surrounded by a lot of warthogs - cute wild pigs, always preoccupied with digging under everything that is being dug. And when we took the ferry to the northern part of the park in the morning, we saw a lot of hippos on the ferry. These giants with huge fangs and small ears, walking on the bottom and very fast running along the shore, always caused me a feeling of affection.

On the beach, we met several dozen baboons, whose posturing is very deceptive: guests who approach them at a distance of no more than a couple of meters suddenly discover that the baboon, who was happily peeling a banana, is ready to use non-childish fangs to protect his child at any moment.

Here we also saw a family of elephants, the head of which, as we approached about twenty meters away, immediately stood on the spot, spread his ears and trumpeted: "do not come any closer!"

We drove around the park for several hours and saw many beautiful birds (fussy guinea fowls and, on the contrary, very important secretary birds, bustards, Abyssinian horned crows, ibises sacred to Egypt, bald eagles-fishermen and crowned cranes-a symbol of Uganda), artiodactyls (swamp antelopes, impala, Grant's gazelles, water goats), African buffaloes (blunt and menacing, with a constant buffalo bird, as if designed to calm a hot confidant). Numerous giraffes were pleasing to the eye.

The main colors in the savanna are yellow and green: the sun spilled among the trees.


The next day we took a boat to Murchison Falls. The Victoria Nile is several hundred meters wide, with a high, wooded bank on one side and a more gentle slope on the other. Along the picturesque banks and in the water near them there are many antelopes, buffaloes, birds. Crocodiles (up to four meters long, yellow, as if burned out in the sun) are really very much here-hundreds. Interested in new travelers, they often sent us their constant companion-a brown lapwing. There are no fewer hippos in the river, mostly they show only their ears and eyes, or suddenly appear very close to the side of the steamer. There are also its own predators: catfish (lump catfish), tiger fish (similar to our asp with piranha teeth) and the famous Nile perch (in 2001, a specimen weighing 106 kg was caught).

...The noise of the grand waterfall is growing more and more. We go ashore and walk up the hills to see the waterfall from above. The mountain trail, which climbs more and more upwards, leads to a sight that is stunning. The river seems to explode with rapids. Neal, finding a narrow six-meter passage on his way, literally shoots through it.

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All the rapids of the great Nile gather in one and, creating a mass of eddies and a multi-meter curtain of water spray, noisily squeeze through the passage in the rock and fall 122 meters down-to flow further, cool the expanses of Northern Uganda and Sudan with their moisture, include the Ethiopian Blue Nile in their streams and continue to give life to Egypt, so that in the end, tired, but fulfilled its mission, to join the Mediterranean Sea.

Under the impression of the waterfall and animals of the Ugandan savanna, along the shore of the lake. Albert, we went on a long journey to the southwest, to the capital of the monarchy of Batoro-Fort Portal, at the entrance to which the "Land of a thousand Hills" begins.


You drive for a long time along mountain roads-peaks on the left, a cliff on the right, and then the next hill (and women whose bodies are located at an acute angle to the cultivated land - such eternal mountaineering, where instead of an ice axe a hoe) - with the feeling that the road is now going from earth to air, and waiting for an oncoming car from which It was impossible to miss each other, I was thrilled. The green hills are beautiful!

Near the border with the Congo, in the area of Bundibugio, we visited the village of Bambuti Pygmies. The whole village performed two dances for us - in a circle, to the sound of drums, bells, and small wind instruments. One of my companions did not fail to take part in the dance. We bought almost everything they offered from them. But they did not buy a stringed musical instrument made of turtle shell, so as not to encourage the destruction of them. I bought the same one, but in a" wooden " version, musical bells, a bow and arrow, a knife, a smoking pipe and a calabash-a vessel made of wild pumpkin. All this is decorated with simple geometric ornaments.

It was in Bundibugio in March 2007 that Ugandan government forces killed 38 militants from the United Democratic Forces, a guerrilla group that conducts attacks from the territory of the DRC. Four militants were killed (including UDF leader Bosco Isiko) and four others were arrested after a shootout. And a couple of months after we left, there was an Ebola outbreak here (18 people died).


...And now we are approaching the legendary Ruwenzori mountain range, whose name means "Rainmaker" in the local language. Saturated air from the Congo jungle climbs up the mountain slopes, which are constantly shrouded in clouds, and then feeds the Semliki River - one of the sources of the Nile, sometimes included in the Albert Nile.

Ruwenzori in Uganda is often referred to as the"Moon Mountains". The German traveler O. Bauman reported in 1894 that the locals called the place where the Nile springs are located "the land of the moon" 17.

The tops of the Lunar Mountains are difficult to see, as there is practically no sun here. And only a few times a year, during the full moon, you can admire the majestic snow-white peaks, including the third highest mountain in Africa - Margarita (5100-5109 m). Russian pilots working here under contract call it affectionately - "Daisy".

In 1997-2003, the Ugandan and Congolese authorities did not allow anyone to go to the Moon Mountains - the press reported on cannibalism, which, they say, was revived in eastern Congo. 18 In 2002, a team of climbers was kidnapped here, whose fate is still unknown. It wasn't until the mid-2000s that groups of people were drawn here to plunge into the misty Lunar Mountains, which became a "small homeland" for chimpanzees, the closest relative of the elephant daman (the size of a rabbit and similar to a hamster), a giant forest boar and many unique bird species.

Uganda has more bird varieties than any other country in Africa. In an area comparable in size to the former metropolis of England, there are 1008 of them - more than half of all the varieties of birds in Africa.

..We checked our e-mail at a roadside Internet cafe and drove to Kilembe (the closest village to the Moon Mountains on the Ugandan side), where we were waiting for an excursion to the copper mines. The water here is turquoise, as it should be in places where copper oxides predominate.


We are going to the national park again. Elizabeth Park is located between Lakes George and Edward and was named after the Queen of England, who visited Uganda and this place half a century ago. In November 2007 She was back in Uganda for the Commonwealth summit. This park, which is home to half of the Ugandan bird species, is an ornithological paradise, and at the same time a biosphere world heritage site.

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UNESCO. Here live the rarest birds: the black bee-eater, the "king of fishing", several other varieties of falcons and eagles. In addition, birds that are dear to the Russian heart winter in Uganda - nightingales, swallows, wagtails, orioles, buzzards, lapwings, carrier sandpipers, plovers, spindles, harriers, kobchiki. In addition to many birds, 2.5 thousand elephants and about 200 lions live here.

Here we met two jeeps with people peering intently at the savannah. As it turned out, their attention was attracted by vultures, the attention of vultures - the remains of some artiodactyls, but nothing attracted the attention of artiodactyls - the two lionesses had already finished their meal and were lying impressively among the tall grass, periodically twitching their ears - either from the tickling grass, or from pleasure, or from flies.

..From the park, we drive to the high-altitude Lake Bunyoni, located in the south-western corner of Uganda, from where you can easily reach Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and not far from Tanzania. From the shore of the lake, we crossed to the island of Itambira and settled down in close proximity to the water and a mass of crowned cranes. Bunyoni means " place of little birds." And this is true: there are a great many of them here.


The next day, we sailed on dugout boats (made from a single tree trunk) to the neighboring island of Bwama. The island is hilly, with settlements and plantations of the Bakiga ethnic group. Traditional blacksmiths live here.

Metallurgy in Africa is a special topic, as it calls into question the generally accepted change of cultural eras in Western science, the names and nature of which are determined by the predominant material for processing. After all, in Africa, the Iron Age followed directly after the Stone Age, and no copper and bronze Ages for you! In Tropical Africa, there are many deposits of swamp and turf ores and laterites, from which it is not difficult to melt metal-700 degrees Celsius is enough, which can be obtained with the help of an ordinary fire.

The blacksmiths on Bwama were really skilled: literally before our eyes, they forged a dozen arrowheads, spears, hoes and other products. Two blacksmiths and a woman working rhythmically with animal furs made a proper impression on us.

On the island, we saw fences made of giant milkweed, which locals use to protect their vegetable gardens. According to the famous traveler David Livingston, who met such fences on the territory of modern Zambia, they have a defensive function: they protect against arrows, and most importantly - from arson, since the grass under the milkweed does not grow. There are numerous aloes in abundance on the island, which, unlike the inhabitants of Russian windowsills, are very large and bloom with beautiful flowers.


In the morning, we regretfully said goodbye to the "Place of Small Birds" and drove towards the equator.

Here we observed an interesting experience with funnels: on one side of the equator, water swirls in one direction, but as soon as the equator is crossed, it changes direction and turns in the opposite direction. This is clearly visible: at the bottom of the funnel, a spiral and a flower are drawn, which turns with the water. And if you pour water into a funnel at the equator itself , it simply falls down, without twisting either to the right or to the left...

...From Kampala, we went to Entebbe Airport, completing a circuit of Ugandan territory. In 14 days, they covered 2 thousand km, moving around the country under the strict supervision of its symbol - the crowned crane.

1 The Trustees of the British Museum. London, 1931, 1 - 5. 14/18; Waylarui E. J., Burkiti M. C., Braunholtz J. N. Archaeological Discoveries at Luzira//Man. 1965. Р. 147.

2 History of Tropical Africa (from ancient times to 1800). Moscow, 1984. P.'! 17-32 / i; Ssewanyana N. K. The Legcndally Kingdom. Discover the Secret History of Buganda Kingdom. B. M., B. D.

Jjuulto S. 3 A History of Modern Uganda from 1945 to Present Day. B. M., B. D.] p. 269. On the connection between bachwezi and bahima, see: Balezin A. S. In the Great African Operas. Monarchs and Presidents of Uganda, Moscow, 1989, p. 39.

4 Например: Tarzan and the Lost Safari. Director: H.Bruce Ilumberstone. Cast: Gordon Scott. 1957.

5 Mountains of the Moon. Director: Bob Rafclson. Cast: Patrick Herein, lain Glen. 1990.

Balezip A. S. 6 Decree. soch. P. 20.

Chizhov N. N., Shlichter S. B. 7 Uganda. Ekonomiko-geograficheskaya kharakteristika [Economic and geographical characteristics], Moscow, 1977, pp. 35-38.

Waitapp O. 8 Durch Massiland zur Nilquelle. Reisen und Forschungen der Massai-Lxpedition des deutschen Antisklavcrei-Komite in denjahren 1891 - 1893. Berlin, 1894.

Kulik S. 9 Safari. Travels in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Moscow, 1971, p. 82.

Kulik S. 10 Decree. op. p. 101.

11 Ibid., p. 104.

Jjuulto S. A.2 Op. cit. p. 257-294.

13 Uganda: Amnesty International Calls for an Effective Alternative to Impunity. Al Index: AFR 59/004/2006.

Schaller J. B. 14 Year under the sign of the gorilla. Moscow, 1968. p. 51.

Grzhimek B. 15 Among the animals of Africa. Moscow, 1973. P. 294.

16 The Wildlife Link. A Publication of the Uganda Wildlife Authority under Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry. 2007. p. 22.

Baumann O. 17 Op. cit.

Kiley S. 18 Chaos and Cannibalism under Congos Bloody Skies // The Observer. 17 August, 2003.

* Goodbye, Uganda! (luganda).


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