Libmonster ID: SE-413

Most of the books devoted to Chinese printing, Chinese engraving, and traditional Chinese woodcuts that have recently been published in the West use a new term for European historiography - "print culture". Translating it into Russian as "print culture" or" print culture " will not adequately express its meaning. This short English expression means "a culture based on printing", as opposed to "a handwritten book culture "or"an electronic text culture".

The main promoter of the new term is the famous French book historian, philosopher and sociologist, professor of the Higher School of Social Sciences (L'EHESS) Roger Chartier. He is an adherent of" historical anthropology", which was founded by the creators of the" School of Annals " - Lucien Fevre, Marc Blok, Fernand Braudel and Henri-Jean Martin. For the first time, R. Chartier introduces the concept of "print culture" into scientific use in the preface to the Princeton University collection "Print Culture, Power and Use of Print in Europe on the Threshold of Modern Times" [Chattier, 1987], where he explains that this term originated from Europeans ' attempts to understand the social meaning of the Gutenberg Revolution for the early history of modern Europe. According to this concept, any text is inseparable from the specific material conditions that made it accessible to the reader. A common foundation for the history of philosophy, art, or science from the point of view of cultural studies should be the ability to simultaneously analyze the circumstances of production, circulation, and perception of any text. Thus, classical literary studies, as well as later methods of structuralism and deconstructivism, seem insufficient, since they do not take into account the type and existence of the text carrier.

R. Chartier tries to combine the methods of historical anthropology, sociology and bibliography in order to reconstruct the history of cultures of the past, in his case - France, as the history of ideas, "mental history", captured in the texts that were created in this past, and in how they were multiplied, distributed, and perceived by the public..

R. Chartier's ideas about "print culture" were taken up and developed by other Western researchers. Two more concepts - "print commerce" and "print capitalism" - have been proposed for more recent times as stages of the mental and social aspects of the development of European nations. I think it would be more logical to introduce these concepts as components of "print culture", rather than consider them as chronologically successive stages. Otherwise, it turns out that the period of "print culture" exists in different countries in its strictly defined period of time, when texts were printed mainly not for sale. With the development of the print market, the period of "print trade" begins, which, when a certain level of mechanization of printing processes is reached, is replaced by"print capitalism". The idea of stadiality obscures the original meaning that was put into the concept of "print culture" by its creator. Moreover, the "print capitalism" that existed until recently, with the development of digital technologies, is being replaced by a certain new stage that requires its own understanding.

Creating his four-volume history of the French book, R. Chartier, in search of material for his theoretical research, went to the Chinese and Far Eastern tradition of printing. The new soil was fertile.

The first book of the XVII volume of "Late Imperial China"magazine ("Late Imperial China") for 1996 is a special issue entitled "Publishing and print culture in China".

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Late Imperial China " ("Publishing and printing Culture in Late Imperial China"). The collection opens with a program article by R. Chartier " Gutenberg revisited from the East "("Gutenberg comes again from the East") [Chartier, 1996]. The facts presented in it are known to every Sinologist: the Chinese have known terracotta movable type since the XI century, Koreans and Japanese long before Gutenberg created a metal movable type, although they rarely used it. "However, this temporary advantage is not the most important reason to challenge the unintentional ethnocentrism of Western historians" (p.3).

R. Chartier does not raise the issue of priorities. The Far East, in his opinion, abandoned the movable type in favor of woodcuts: woodcut is more convenient for hieroglyphics, allows you to mark a strict border between printed and handwritten text, and finally, it gives book circulations that are large enough to form the market for printed products. Therefore, when Europeans say that "print culture" originated in Europe after the invention of Gutenberg, they do not take into account the fact that similar phenomena originated in China during the Tang Dynasty, although based on a fundamentally different printing technique - woodcut. Thus, R. Chartier gave Chinese culture the opportunity to be considered in the context of his concept developed for the Western post-Gutenberg culture.

The authors of R. Chartier's patronized issue of "Late Imperial China" 1 did not fail to take advantage of this. All the articles are united by the expressed agreement with the concept of approach to the study of printed text proposed by R. Chartier. However, since the journal limits the time frame of the study, it is not entirely clear how the system developed for Europe after the 15th century should be applied to China in the 9th century. Later Chinese realities undoubtedly provide more material for the manifestation of "print culture" in the context of Chinese culture.

The earliest period in the history of Chinese printing is presented in Lucille Jia's book " Printing for Profit. Commercial publishers of Jianyang, Fujian XI-XVII centuries" [Chia, 2002], which is a continuation of her article in the XVII volume of the journal "Late Imperial China". The author's goal is to study the social history of books in China: "In order to understand how Chinese people have read and viewed books in the past and how commercial publishers have developed their technical and business skills, we must first study their products and show how paper, ink, calligraphy, page layout, and illustrations have affected the reader's perception and experience. their perception of a printed book, " writes L. Jia (p. 5).

The Jianyang region (Jianan) in what is now Fujian Province is unique. Under Song, the coastal regions of Fujian and Zhejiang were the main cultural and political centers of the country. Convenient transportation routes and the availability of a variety of raw materials have made these areas economically advanced. Jianyang has long produced paper that was traded far beyond the borders of Fujian. It is not by chance that truly commercial relations in the field of printing have emerged in these regions. Jianyang became one of the first centers of printing and book trade since the Northern Song.

Of the three types of Sung printing - official, private ("home") and commercial (Fang ke) - L. Jia thoroughly studies the third. It is important, the researcher notes, to learn to distinguish between the latter two types, because many shopkeepers, in an effort to circumvent administrative restrictions and get rid of the tax burden, tried to pass off their products clearly intended for sale as private home publications. Commercial printing was relatively simple, with no particular pretensions to high artistic merit. Official and private printers could afford much more. It is no coincidence that many Sung woodcuts have been considered exemplary for centuries. The Jianyang style was the first to become famous. The books published in Fujian continued the tradition of Sung and Yuan book illustration, and most of them were produced in Jianyang. At the beginning of Qing, the Jianyang style moved to Nanjing, where an independent Jinling school developed with a naive, archaic style.

The first chapters of the book by L. Jia are devoted to the emergence and rapid development of commercial printing in the Song and Yuan region. A separate chapter goes into more detail about the external world.

1 Chia L. The development of the Jianyang book trade, Song-Yuan; Brokaw C. Commercial publishing in Late Imperial China: the Zou and Ma family business of Sibao, Fujian; Brook T. Edifying knowledge: the building of school libraries in Ming China; Chow Kai-wing. Writing for success: printing, examinations and intellectual change in late Ming China; Bell C. "A precious raft to save the world". The interaction of scriptural traditions and printing in a Chinese morality book.

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in the form of a book, what distinguishes the Jianyang style of commercial printing. In relation to the Ming period, the author covers the issues of book trade in the region with particular care, analyzes different types of audience for different commercial publications.

Michela Bussotti's great work " Engravings of the Anhui School. Chinese Illustrated Book from the end of the 16th to the first half of the 17th century " [Bussotti, 2001] is devoted to the study of woodblock printing in Anhui at a later time. The author begins with the era that L. Jia ends with. M. Bussotti is not limited to the commercial aspects of the Anhui school of book graphics. She is more interested in the artistic side, which was the most perfect, refined, even, one might say, author's in Minsk book printing. Describing the works of his predecessors, M. Bussotti notes that only in recent years the study of book publishing in China has reached a wide range. The researcher recognizes the priorities of scientists involved in the history of the European book over the works of sinologists, complains about the lack of documents and sources, bibliographies and old catalogs that would help reconstruct the history of the book in the East. Unlike specialists in the history of books in Europe, Sinologists have to study woodcuts mainly from the books themselves, the analysis of their appearance, the evolution of technologies, genre and stylistic diversity, and print runs.

Most of the population of Huizhou (now Shexian), Anhui Province, was wiped out after the troubles of the late Yuan. The tragedy was followed by a rapid revival of the region, including the economic one. The commercial talent of local residents is known. Huizhou is home to the largest clans in the late Ming. Many rich people had collections of books and paintings. The best white paper (mianzhi) was produced in the vicinity of Huizhou, most of whose natives were printers and booksellers. Members of the Huang family alone are involved in publishing half of the Minsk book illustrations. M. Bussotti traces the creation of a recognizable regional style of book woodcut in Huizhou by the end of the 17th century. Works by the outstanding artist Chen Hongshou (1598 - 1652), who created sketches for book graphics, and professional artists Qiu Ying (1494? - 1552?) and Tan Ying (1470-1524), which were used as book illustrations, played a crucial role in the development of this style. The extraordinary popularity of illustrated editions of dramatic works during the Ming period also influenced the subject matter and artistic merit of Huizhou paintings. Book illustrations here began to be cut separately from the text, which was often engraved much more carelessly. Thus, for the first time in history, the woodcuts of the Anhui school brought pictures and illustrations to the fore, dominating the text. They were even signed by artists, which is very much appreciated.

The title of Robert Hegel's book " Reading an Illustrated Book in Late Imperial China "(Hegel, 1988) shows that it is directly related to the complex sociological method of R. Chartier, although the author claims that his interest in the physical appearance of a traditional Chinese book and its perception by the reading audience arose from the study of Chinese novels themselves. Hegel is the author of the study "The Novel in 17th-century China" (1981). The researcher chose reading illustrated prose in China during the heyday of the novel and short story as the main topic of his study. He points to R. Chartier as an author whose ideas influenced his theoretical developments: it was the work of the French scientist that formulated for him the "task as a historian" to reconstruct the difference between texts in their artistic features and material form from the understanding of these texts by readers as a specific practice.

The titles of the chapters of R. Hegel's book, which repeat the same words in different combinations, indicate the consistency with which the scientist adheres to his main line - the analysis of interpretations: prose and contexts, prose as text, text as artifact, artifact as art, art as text, new contexts, new texts. The opportunity to study how a huge country read fiction in illustrated publications was provided to R. Hegel by the Chinese book culture itself, which after many centuries of development has reached a high level of standardization of printing and commercialization of culture. Standardization was the result of economic competition between printers and the introduction of commercial relations in the book business. In the XVI - first half of the XVII century, a revolution in printing took place in China, which was a consequence of the development of woodcut technology, the qualitative growth of the reading population in cities, and the rise in demand for popular literature.

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The causes, the course of this revolution, as well as the analysis of its consequences are precisely the objects of R. Hegel's close interest. The complex structure of R. Hegel's book allows us to repeatedly analyze the same facts from different angles. Detailed excursions into history provide an opportunity to understand the causes of many phenomena in the history of Chinese bookmaking: various types of illustrations, the principles according to which illustrations were made for literary works of various genres. The author also discusses issues of censorship, the emergence of the idea of copyright. All this is confirmed by statistical data and numerous tables.

R. Hoegel would not be a follower of R. Chartier if he did not constantly compare the realities of Chinese and European "print culture". He writes extensively about Chinese picture book artists, how their functions and status have changed over time, and how they can be compared to their European counterparts. The main difference between a woodcut-printed picture book and a European typographic "picture book" is that woodcut allows you to make text and illustrations to it in the same technique and even on the same sheet. This purely technical possibility, which can be considered both as an advantage and a disadvantage of the traditional Chinese method, predetermined the difference between the existence of a European and a Chinese illustrated book. This includes the appearance of books, the ability of Chinese printers to produce huge print runs of their products, and, finally, the emergence of a powerful tradition of one-page illustrations for works of fiction in the depths of Chinese book culture. In the People's picture (Nianhua) on the plots of classic novels and dramas by R. R. Tolkien. Hegel sees a response to the cheapening of the book at the end of the Qing. The flourishing of literary and theatrical folk prints marked the end of the division of text and illustration to it.

If R. Hegel only mentions nianhua in a complex of problems related to the Chinese "print culture", then James Flat's book" The Cult of Happiness, Nianhua, art and History in the villages of Northern China " (Flath, 2004) is entirely devoted to the sociological aspect of the folk picture in Northwestern China. Its author is an absolute supporter of the method of R. Chartier, as he writes in the preface: "Nianhua as an expression of' print culture ' is primarily a means of understanding the world through a printed publication, in the physical sense it is the act of producing, distributing, purchasing, displaying and reading a printed publication, in the social sense it is an abstraction of the world created by repetitive and systematic overlays of ink on paper, as well as the interaction and transformation of social media. communications through print" (p. 5). As an example, the custom of worshipping the printed icon of the god of the Hearth Tsaowan is given: "Since the printed article is a medium, ritual must also be understood as a specific reading practice within the culture defined by the printed article" (p. 6).

This is precisely the contradiction between different interpretations, because it is quite obvious that nianhua, with its well-established system of factory production and distribution channels throughout the country, can also be considered as an object of print trade. J. Flat chooses for his research just the most literal interpretation of the term "print culture", as suggested by R. Chartier. Any cultural phenomenon is inseparable from the place in which it was born, from the conditions that made its appearance possible. J. Flat insists on the need for a more thorough study of social connections, without which the study of the folk picture is not possible. The scientist sees in nianhua not the actual picture, but a kind of text. One of the chapters of his book is called "Reading nianhud". The possibility of this kind of reading is given by a unique feature of the Far Eastern culture, in which everything is based on the woodcut method of printing. In this culture, both a book and an engraving on a separate sheet are produced in the same way, often even in the same workshop. Thus, Chinese woodcut is an example of a single, monolithic "print culture", while in Western civilizations with their variety of printing techniques there is no place for such universalism.

The place and time of the creation of Nianhua are crucial for J. Flat: Northern China from the end of the Qing to the beginning of the 1950s is the period that he studies. For him, it is important to restore the whole complex of social ties that were involved in the production and distribution of folk paintings, to determine the role of the artist in rural society, and the ways of building up the market of folk paintings. Wherever folk woodcuts appeared, a wide variety of styles, connections, market competitions, and technical changes were formed. J. Flat tries to understand what the typical house was like, on the walls of which there were nannies.

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Hua, who went through all the intricacies of social ties, how changes in society affected everyday life and, accordingly, the nature of the paintings in this house. Technical modernization of the early XX century. It inevitably affected the world of Chinese folk painting. J. Flat carefully analyzes the changes that have taken place, gives a lot of interesting facts.

R. Chartier's method is most consistently used in Christopher Reed's book Gutenberg in Shanghai. Chinese "print capitalism", 1876-1937 " [Reed, 2004]. This monumental work is devoted exclusively to the introduction of European technology based on the use of movable type to the environment of Shanghai publishers and printers. The paper has about 400 pages, a huge factual material, and an excellent reference tool. K. Reed's book was awarded an honorary prize in the Oriental studies community: "International convention of Asia scholars book prizes 2005: the best book in the humanities category" (International Institute for Asian Studies newsletter. N 38, p. 25).

Describing recent works on the history of the Chinese book, K. Reed notes how much recently various authors, not without the influence of R. Chartier, began to write about "print culture", "print commerce"and" print capitalism". I should add that there are also many books devoted to various aspects of the art trade in late China. The latter topic was almost completely closed for a long time, everyone wrote exclusively about "pure" Chinese art, and the study of "painting for sale" [Hsu, 2001] is a very recent achievement.

According to K. Reed, the term "print culture" exists in two senses: broad, which covers all the processes of book publishing in the post-Gutenberg period, and narrow, proposed by R. Chartier. As applied to China, the period to which we will apply the term in both senses is unusually long, beginning with the development of woodblock printing under the Tang, i.e., almost 800 years before Gutenberg's invention, and ending with its decline under the Qing. I note that most of this period is covered by the term "print commerce". More K's. K. Flug perfectly showed how the sprouts of the book trade made their way through the powerful layer of official Korean government and private philanthropic book publishing (Flug, 1959). Now, writes K. Reid, "The historiography of print culture has significantly changed the ways in which historians of Chinese sociology and culture understand what the mental culture of the empire was like" (p. 5). The number of works on this topic is steadily increasing, and one can expect that the accumulation of more factual material will lead to more coherent theoretical constructions.

"Print capitalism" is much less studied. Benedict Anderson (1991) was the first to suggest the term "print capitalism": it is a commercialized, secularized, non-governmental and non-philanthropic production of texts for the widest possible audience. However, believes K. Reid, this definition does not apply to Chinese specifics at all, because all these features of book production existed even under the Song Dynasty. "Print capitalism" is characterized only by a high degree of mechanization of print production, along with the presence of the above factors. C. Reed's book is a detailed account of how Chinese "print capitalism"was born.

To. Reed shows familiarity with J. Flat's work on nianhua. He sees its advantages in identifying "the adaptation of commercial Nianhua workshops to the historical changes of the XIX and XX centuries" (p. 6), and cites other facts of the adaptation of folk paintings to the new conditions of Shanghai printing production, which allows us to see how the Nianhua gradually enter the sphere of interests of the emerging Chinese "print capitalism".

It is good that both researchers do not complain about the use of new techniques in folk paintings, as is typical of art historians, who usually see only the decline of traditional culture in technical innovations, but simply state these changes. The tradition of New Year's paintings continues to this day, and is supported by technical means that are completely far from woodcuts. Taiwan regularly hosts the Annual Republican New Year's Picture Contest, an exhibition of winning paintings for 19 years has been held, and its catalog has been published [Tradition and innovation..., 2004]. All engraving techniques are presented, including high-tech ones. The main condition is to follow the original spirit of the folk picture: benevolence, brightness, colorfulness, and the use of traditional symbols. A special foreword by the editor is devoted to explaining why "electronic folk paintings" have been allowed and won prizes in the competition for the last two years (pp. 21-23).

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K. Reed's book is an actual study of how the need for modernization that emerged within the semi-colonial Chinese society was realized technically in such an important branch of literature-centric country as printing. Modernization on the Western model of Chinese printing, as well as other aspects of Chinese life, was not easy, and led to unexpected results: a multi-thousand-year-old civilization that assimilated many foreign cultures, in its own way managed to rework new Western technologies. Printing technologies were one of the first technical innovations that came to China together with missionaries. They were destined to change the Chinese economy and industry, but not the religious consciousness of the Chinese.

Introducing the reader to the principles of organizing his book, which combines technology, business, politics, and culture, C. Reed says that he is looking at "a chronologically organized, problem-oriented, analytical history of the Shanghai printing and publishing industry, which is limited to the period from 1876 to 1937" (p.22). This period in Chinese history is so full of events that it is difficult to perceive it as homogeneous: the two "Opium" wars, the Taiping Rebellion, the Franco-Chinese War, the Sino-Japanese War, the Yihetuan (Boxer) Uprising directed against Europeans, the revolutions of 1911-1913 and 1925-1927, and the Japanese occupation. The range of topics that K. Reed covers in his book is also very wide, because in the sphere of his interests are issues of economics and industry, which rarely attract the attention of historians of the book. The book contains 5 chapters corresponding to the five stages of introducing new technology to Shanghai publishing.

The semi-colonial status of China makes the study of the history of books in Late Qing and Republican China interdisciplinary. K. Reed believes that the Chinese strongly imitated Western technologies largely for political reasons. The Chinese made the transition from woodblock printing to typesetting in a generation and a half, rather than in four centuries, as Europe did, at the cost of a lot of effort: the social price of modernization was high, and a lot of money was paid for rapid development. The production of printing equipment outstripped the industrial development of the country as a whole; all statistical data indicate that "the Shanghai production of printing presses created the most significant industry in republican China" (p.134).

New printing technologies rapidly changed the very context of life of the Chinese educated class, as a result of which the traditional term wen was transformed into a new one - wenhua, which is conventionally translated as "culture". Wen meant book culture and the whole life of an educated person connected with it, whose goal was leadership and official service. Wenhua is not only the activity of intellectuals related to high literature, but also the most extensive educational processes, regardless of whether or not education is aimed at obtaining a public position. Shanghai succeeded in creating a "universalist model of print capitalism": the selective and careful use of Western technology and the development of traditional values allowed China to constructively use the achievements of Western civilization.

Unlike the rest of the non-European part of the world, which was involved in the Gutenberg Revolution, China had a large readership long before the nineteenth century. Newspapers, magazines, books, and comics were read by hundreds of millions of people at the beginning of the twentieth century, which is why new technologies that reproduce huge print runs cheaply were so popular and adapted so quickly to local conditions. China, long before the Shanghai rise of "print capitalism," had a print culture and print trade that influenced the nature and pace of modernization.

To. Reed believes that he has succeeded in writing a "social history of technology," a genre that has been necessary and sought after by book historians in recent decades.

The concept of "print culture", especially in the narrow interpretation of R. Chartier, is good at least because it has already created many interesting books on the history of books and bookmaking in China. It is clear from the plans of various Western publishing houses that such works will continue to be published. Thus, now that the work on compiling catalogues and bibliographic descriptions of the world's main collections of old Chinese books is almost complete, Western researchers are working together to write the history of the Chinese book in various aspects - art history, technology, bibliography, social and economic. I would like to hope that Russian scientists will be able to have their say here, especially since domestic tra-

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the tendencies of studying a Chinese book are very strong. It is enough to recall the pre-war research of K. K. Flug and the work of the recently departed L. N. Menshikov.

list of literature

Flug K. K. Istoriya kitayskoy pechatnoy knigi sunskoy epokhi 10 - 13 vv. [History of the Chinese printed book of the Sung era of the 10th-13th centuries].

Anderson B. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London-New York: Verso, 1991.

Bussotti M. Gravures de Hui. Etude du livre illustre chinois de la fin du XVI-e siecle a la premiere moitie du XVII-e siecle. P.: Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient, 2001.

Chartier R. General introduction: Print culture // The Culture of Print, Power and the Uses of Print in Early Modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Chartier R. Gutenberg revisited from the East // Late Imperial China, 1996, XVII-1.

Chia L. Printing for Profit. The Commercial Publishers of Jianyang, Fujian (11'h - 17'h centuries). Harvard: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002. (Harvard-Yenching Institute monograph series; 56).

Flath J. A. The Cult of Happiness. Nianhua, Art and History in Rural North China. Vancouver-Toronto: UBC Press, 2004.

Hegel R. The Novel in Seventeenth-Century China. N. Y.: Columbia University Press, 1981.

Hegel R. E. Reading Illustrated Fiction in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988.

Hsu Ginger Cheng-chi. A Bushel of Pearls. Painting for Sale in Eighte en-Century Yangchow. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Reed Ch. A. Gutenberg in Shanghai, Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876 - 1937. Vancouver-Toronto: UBC Press, 2004 (Contemporary Chinese studies).

Tradition and Innovation: New Year Print Exhibition. Kaohsiung: Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, 2004.


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