Libmonster ID: SE-259
Author(s) of the publication: T. DEITCH

T. DEITCH, Candidate of Historical Sciences

At the creation of the United Nations, peacekeeping was declared one of its main functions. Under the UN Charter, the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security rested with the Security Council( SC). Since 1945, the UN has assisted in the negotiation of more than 170 peace agreements. 1 Since 1948, 60 UN peacekeeping operations have been conducted; of these, 47 have been conducted by the Security Council since 1988. about 130 countries were sent to the operations (105 countries send peacekeepers constantly). The missions included more than 750,000 military and civilian personnel. Almost 2,000 peacekeepers have been killed in UN operations in various parts of the world2.

UN peacekeeping and international security activities include preventive diplomacy, peace-making, peace-keeping, and peace-building. Preventive diplomacy includes actions aimed at preventing disputes between the parties, preventing disputes from escalating into conflicts, and limiting the scope of conflicts. In recent years, its arsenal of tools has been expanded by such a mechanism as the preventive deployment of UN Forces (UNPRO).

Peacemaking refers to actions aimed at bringing warring parties to an agreement through mediation, reconciliation, arbitration, good offices, and enforcement of peace and sanctions. The dispute resolution body is the International Court of Justice in The Hague. It has helped resolve conflicts between Mali and Burkina Faso, Chad and Libya, Cameroon and Nigeria, and Ethiopia and Eritrea, among others.

The purpose of sanctions is to change the behavior of the state and warn that sanctions may be followed by tougher measures. Recently, the range of application of sanctions has been expanding: they are used not only against States, but also against one of the opposing groups. An example is the UN embargo on the import of weapons and ammunition, military aid and fuel supplies to the UNITA group in Angola, as well as the freezing of the organization's financial assets in order to force it to comply with previously reached agreements with the Angolan Government.

Although sanctions are in some cases an effective means of resolving conflicts, their application also has negative consequences: They have a negative impact on the economy of the embargoed country and its neighboring countries, they affect the least socially protected groups of the population, and they hinder the work of international humanitarian organizations.

The effectiveness and justification of forcing peace by military force is controversial, especially since it is always difficult to ensure the impartiality of interventionist forces. However, often because of the delay in the use of force, genocide claims the lives of thousands of people. Timely military intervention in such cases can stop mass acts of violence.

The task of peacekeeping operations (OPM) is to prevent or end hostilities, separate the belligerents, and monitor compliance with the terms of the peace agreement. A peacekeeping force may also be tasked with organizing and monitoring the repatriation of refugees, acting as advisers in the training of local law enforcement forces, and so on. Thus, some of the tasks of a peacekeeping force may overlap with the objectives of peace enforcement and peace consolidation operations.

Peacekeeping operations are conducted with the consent or at the request of the host State, under the mandate of the Security Council or under its direction by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. While in the beginning such operations were more often military in nature, and forces were deployed after the armistice was concluded, but before the parties began negotiations to resolve the conflict, since the end of the 1980s, forces began to be deployed after the success of negotiations, and they were tasked with creating conditions not for negotiations, but for the implementation of the agreement. Similar operations were conducted in Namibia, Angola, and Mozambique.

There is also a tendency to expand the range of tasks of peacekeeping forces, becoming a base where elements of future peace enforcement and peace consolidation operations are being worked out.

The concept of peacekeeping has a large set of limitations (the use of force only for self-defense, the deployment of troops only with the consent of the parties, etc.), which hinders the effective implementation of its tasks. The transfer of the Security Council's rights and obligations to conduct OPM to individual States and regional organizations, which has been practiced in recent years, also causes a lot of criticism.

One of the new UN activities is peace consolidation, which includes actions aimed at identifying and supporting structures that can strengthen and establish peace in order to prevent the resumption of conflict. This type of action involves recovery

Based on the materials of the "round table" on "Peacekeeping in the UN practice", organized by the Center for Policy Assessments of the Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences on June 20, 2006. It was carried out within the framework of the RGNF grant No. 06-01-02097a.

page 18

These tasks were carried out in Mozambique (1992-1994), Liberia (1993-1997), and the Central African Republic (1998). In 2005, UN missions supported the organization of elections in Burundi and Liberia, as well as in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where a democratic vote was held for the first time in 40 years and a draft constitution was approved, and in July 2006, presidential and parliamentary elections were held with the mediation of UN forces.

Ideas related to peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa within the UN framework were developed in the "Supplement to the Peace Program" (1995) and in the annual reports of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. In 1998, a report was published specifically devoted to conflict situations in Africa and containing recommendations for their resolution. In 1999, Annan sent a report to the Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, which also focused on the involvement of children in armed conflict.

Annan's report to the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly in 2005 and the Final Document of that session emphasized the exclusive right of the UN Security Council to authorize coercive actions for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Heads of State signed up to the "duty to protect" principle, which means that in the event of gross and systematic violations of human rights in any State, the international community has the right to intervene by decision of the UN Security Council.

A number of UN organizations deal with conflict prevention and resolution issues. In 1991, in accordance with Resolution No. 687, the UN Compensation Commission was established-a subsidiary body of the UN Security Council. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, it considered 2.6 million lawsuits filed by individuals, mostly from developing countries, whose lives were put in danger as a result of armed intervention. In 2000, the Commission for Claims related to the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea was established.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees directs the organization of refugee returns in UN operations; the High Commissioner for Human Rights works in post-conflict reconstruction monitoring missions. Conflict prevention and resolution is the responsibility of the Department of Political Affairs( DPA), which plays a central role in post-conflict reconstruction. The appointment of special representatives is practiced in order to ensure UN support for the efforts of mediators in conflict resolution. Thus, in 1999, Annan sent Tunisian Kamel Morian as a special representative to the DRC to assist South Africa in the peaceful resolution of the Congolese conflict, and Algerian Mohamed Sahnoun to assist the OAU mediation efforts in resolving the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict.

In 2006, 72,000 Blue Helmets and 15,000 Russian soldiers participated in 18 UN peacekeeping operations around the world. civilian employees. The largest contingents were sent to the peacekeeping forces of Bangladesh (10288), Pakistan (9431), India (9057), Jordan (3648 people), Nepal (3523 people) 3.

Africa plays a key role in UN peacekeeping; operations on the continent employ about 80% of its military and police personnel.4 As Hedy Annabi, the UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, stated in May 2006, about 30% of the Blue Helmets are African.5 Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa account for the largest number of peacekeepers.6

Since 1948, 54 UN peacekeeping operations have been carried out in Africa, 10 of them involving African forces. In 2005, the continent hosted 8 of the 18 UN operations worldwide, involving more than 51,000 military and police personnel.7 16 operations were completed (see Table). "UN Operations in Africa 2006) 8.

Among the least successful are the UN mission in Somalia in 1992, in which more than 30 thousand military personnel from 20 countries, mainly from the United States, took part. American special forces, having lost 18 people killed and 77 wounded, were evacuated, and the UN was forced to later curtail Operation Blue Helmets.

The UN's work in Rwanda has also been criticized. Annan's report, submitted in December 1999, noted that senior UN officials, including Annan himself, who was then in charge of peacekeeping operations, failed to respond adequately to the warnings received from the UN mission in Kigali (Rwanda), and the Security Council members refused to expand the mission's mandate. The withdrawal of peacekeepers only contributed to the escalation of the genocide.9

As an example of successful UN peacekeeping missions, experts consider the assistance to achieve the independence of Namibia (1989-1990), the third UN verification mission in Angola (1995-1997). The UN missions in Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are also called among the most successful.

As far as Sierra Leone is concerned, the United Nations has had to work hard to bring the country's long-running, bloody conflict to an end. The first mission (UNAMSIL) was established in 1999 to facilitate the implementation of the Lomé Agreement. In August 2000, UN Security Council Resolution No. 1313 was adopted, extending the mission's mandate. At the same time, the Security Council called for expanding its military component and strengthening its military-technical potential, but did not consider it necessary to change the peacekeeping nature of the operation itself. Russia, in particular, opposed the reorientation of the mission's mandate to the use of force, considering that this could discredit the image of the UN as a peacekeeper, turning it into a participant in the conflict.10 Subsequently, the mission's mandate was repeatedly extended. UNAMSIL monitored human rights, assisted in the establishment of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, and helped the Government establish the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. UNAMSIL completed its mandate in December 2005.

Although its achievements are considered by many as a model for conducting successful operations

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United Nations Operations In Africa (2006)

Region / Country

Budget (July 2005-June 200), USD million

Number of military and civilian personnel

Death toll

Start of the operation

Western Sahara (UN Referendum Mission)


Military personnel-27; military observers -192; civilian personnel-233


April 1991

Democratic Republic of the Congo (UN Mission)


Military personnel-15,591; military observers-786; police-1,103; civilian personnel-1,779; UN Volunteers-553


November 1999

Ethiopia and Eritrea (UN Mission)


Military personnel-3152; military observers-221; civilian personnel-369


July 2000

Liberia (UN Mission)


Military personnel-14,656; military observers-184


October 2003

Cote dIvoire (UN Operation)


Military personnel-6,703; military observers-191; civilian police-707; civilian personnel-727; UN Volunteers-200


April 2004

Burundi (UN Operation)


Military personnel-3,422; military observers-118; police-16; civilian personnel-690; UN Volunteers-138


May 2004

Sudan (UN Mission)


Military personnel-10,000; police-715; personnel-1913; UN Volunteers-99


March 2005

The situation in Sierra Leone cannot be considered stable. To help overcome the difficulties faced by the country, it was decided in 2006 to replace UNAMSIL with the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL), whose mandate included consolidating the gains made by UNAMSIL and creating conditions for the 2007 elections.

The International Crisis Group named conflicts in the DRC and Cote d'Ivoire among the conflicts that have been eased thanks to the deployment of UN peace operations. The first UN peacekeeping mission in the DRC, established in 2000, was designed to help implement the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement. Its mandate was renewed in November 2005, and by 2006, about 17,000 people participated in it-this operation became the largest in the world. However, even here the process of final transition to peace was delayed.

Established in March 2005, the large-scale UN mission in Sudan, which signed an agreement between the North and South of the country in January 2005, included 10,000 peacekeepers in January 200611. The mission's mandate included facilitating the implementation of the peace agreement, ensuring the return of refugees and displaced persons, assisting in mine clearance and technical assistance, and protecting the rights of the Sudanese population.

However, despite the presence of peacekeepers, Sudan continues to be a hot spot in Africa. The UN Security Council has repeatedly threatened him with international sanctions, demanding to disarm the militants operating in Darfur. The Sudanese government, in turn, accuses the UN of interfering in its internal affairs and strongly opposes the introduction of a peacekeeping contingent from among representatives of non-African countries. An African Union peacekeeping mission is currently stationed in Darfur.

Thus, even calling certain UN missions in Africa successful is a stretch, given the complexity of the tasks that peacekeepers have to solve, the instability of the situation in conflict zones, and the imperfect organization of peacekeeping operations.

Despite the UN's efforts to strengthen African security, it is often accused of inaction. Many blame the Security Council for mistakes and miscalculations in UN peacekeeping activities, blaming it for unclear wording of mandates, the lack of weapons and equipment among peacekeepers, etc. Organizational and political miscalculations of the" first lessons "of peacekeeping were reflected in the fundamental study on the reform of the peacekeeping forces-the "Brahimi Report" (2000). The response, including the Security Council, to the comments contained in the report was to improve the staffing of the UN Secretariat, expand the funding and equipment of peacekeepers, and reduce the deployment time of peacekeeping operations, clearer wording of mandates.

Other UN mechanisms have also been modernized. The UN can be credited, in particular, with monitoring to establish a link between conflict and resource exploitation in the DRC, international military tribunals for Rwanda and Sierra Leone, the creation of a special body to study the regional dimensions of conflicts in West Africa, etc. 12

page 20

An important outcome of the 60th session of the UN General Assembly was the decision to establish the Peacebuilding Commission - an "intergovernmental advisory body". The Commission will develop comprehensive programs and recommendations and transmit them to UN bodies and other agencies. Although the Commission will not have administrative functions, nevertheless, the very fact of its creation inspires optimism.

The effectiveness of peacekeeping activities largely depends on the position of the leading Western countries. The latter have recently begun to show their readiness to respond adequately to the crisis situations in Africa. In February 2006, in a conversation with French President Jacques Chirac, George Bush stated that NATO intends to play a more active role in international peacekeeping efforts. In particular, he expressed NATO's readiness to double the number of peacekeepers in Darfur.13

In recent years, issues of peace and security on the African continent have been in the sphere of interests of the Group of Eight. Its summit in Kananaskis in 2002, in which Russia also participated, adopted the "African Action Plan" on peacekeeping operations in Africa. Reports assessing progress in implementing this plan were presented to the G8 summits in Evian, France, in 2003, Sea Island, USA, in 2004, and Gleneagles, Scotland, in 2005. In 2004, the Sea Island meeting focused on continuing to support peacekeeping operations in Africa through the adoption of a special action plan.

The Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOT), approved by US President George W. Bush, was presented at the summit. The initiative provides for the formation of a peacekeeping force to solve a wide range of tasks. The estimated number of the peacekeeping contingent is 75 thousand people. The main backbone of it should be made up of Africans. At the same time, the United States is going to allocate $ 660 million for this program in 2005-2010. 14 After the Sea Island Summit, steps were taken to fulfill the commitments made. For example, the Group of Eight members have allocated a total of more than $ 200 million to support the presence of African Union (AU) forces in Darfur. The Group of Eight supports regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African Countries (ECOWAS), the East African Community and the South African Development Community (SADC) in strengthening the capacity needed for peace support activities and programmes for early warning and prevention of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons. In 2004, France provided 72 million euros to regional organizations and their member States to implement programmes, including capacity-building activities for peacekeeping operations.

The G8 summit in St. Petersburg in July 2006 highlighted the progress made by member countries in strengthening peace and stability in Africa. This includes helping to establish an African Permanent Readiness Force, providing logistical and financial assistance to African organizations for conflict resolution on the continent, and promoting the development of a number of international peacekeeping training centers in Africa and other regions of the world.

Many members of the Group of Eight identified commitments to promote training and capacity-building for peacekeeping operations as a separate category. The Group of Eight supports African regional networks of training centres for peacekeeping operations, including the Kofi Annan Centre in Accra (Ghana), the Kulikoro School of Peacekeeping (Mali), and the International Mine Action Training Centre in Nairobi (Kenya). For example, Germany has allocated about 42 million euros to strengthen the capacity of regional African institutions in the field of peace and security, including the Kofi Annan Center in Ghana, to support the AU Peace and Security Council, as well as to establish an early warning system for conflicts.

Since 1994, the French program "Development of African Peacekeeping Capabilities" (RECAMP) has been implemented. While the program was initially aimed at French-speaking countries in Africa, its geographical scope has expanded over the years. Since the late 1990s, member countries of SADC, ECOWAS, and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCSA) have been participating in RECAMP. In 2003-2005, he successfully completed the RECAMP IV peacekeeping training course. The next phase, RECAMP V, in cooperation with the AU, the Economic Community of Central African States and the EU, is scheduled for 2006-2008. The RECAMP budget was more than 30 million euros in 2003-2004.15

The United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Norway, and Belgium are participating in the training of African peacekeepers. Italy, with support from other members of the Group of Eight, established a Centre of Excellence for police Training in Vincenza, and funded two training courses in Turin on conflict prevention, human rights and peacekeeping for 70 representatives from 35 African countries.

A special EU Peace Fund for Africa (250 million euros) has been established. The Fund was allocated to support the African Union missions in Darfur (Sudan) - AMIS I - $ 12 million . AMIS II-80 million euros, the multinational force in the Central African Republic-3.38 million euros, the Force Build - up Support Program conducted by the AU Peace and Security Council-6 million euros. euro 16.

The Group of Eight recognized that poor management of natural resources can fuel conflict. The Kimberley Process has established a Certification Scheme to combat the trade in conflict diamonds. This increased the volume of diamonds entering the market through official government channels from Sierra Leone (from $ 10 million in 2000 to $ 129 million in 2004).

The formation of Afri is intended to be a step towards solving the problem of African security-

page 21

the Kansk Union. In the AU Founding Act, African leaders recognized the collective responsibility for maintaining peace and stability on the continent.17 The Peace and Security Council has an important role to play in the work of the AU18. According to its creators, the SMB should become an analogue of the UN Security Council and act decisively in the event of a real or potential threat of conflict in contact with other international organizations, primarily with the UN Security Council.

At the extraordinary Assembly of the AU held in Sirte (Libya) in 2004, the draft Non-Aggression and Joint Defense Pact was approved and the intention to form a "Standby Force" was confirmed. By 2010 The AU Peace and Security Council plans to have 5 - 6 brigades (one for each region of the continent) of 3 - 5 thousand soldiers each, 19 capable of providing a quick response to critical situations.

The AU receives financial support from the UN. The G8 countries, as well as Norway, China and other countries, are helping the AU to create a peacekeeping force.

The African Union has already demonstrated its determination to play an active role in peacekeeping. Together with the United Nations, the AU is a sponsor of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, which in November 2004, through the adoption of the Dar es Salaam Declaration, took the first step towards consolidating a shared vision for peace, security and development in the Great Lakes region.20

In 2005, with the support of UN peacekeeping forces, the African Union managed to normalize the situation in Burundi, where a civil war was brewing. AU peacekeepers, including representatives from Ethiopia, Mozambique and South Africa, monitored the country's transition to a democratic form of government.

July 2005 The AU approved the deployment of a peacekeeping contingent of 1,700 troops to Somalia.21 In April 2004, the African Union sent a monitoring mission to Sudan to monitor the implementation of the ceasefire agreement. The African Union was assisted by the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and other countries. As of 2006, the mission already numbered 7,000 people. The AU also mediated talks in Abuja, Nigeria, between representatives of the Sudanese Government and rebel groups.

Peacekeeping operations have also been undertaken by African regional institutions. The ECOMOG monitoring group of the West African Economic Community (ECOWAS) participated in conflict resolution in Liberia, Sierra Leone and the Republic of Ivory Coast. The Intergovernmental Organization for Development (IGAD), which plays a leading role in resolving the Somali conflict, contributes to peace-building processes on the continent.

Thus, the Africans themselves are becoming more active in unblocking crisis situations on the continent. It should also be noted that States involved in conflicts have more confidence in the mediation efforts of their neighbors than in the interference of external players in their affairs. This is confirmed by the position of the Sudanese Government, which preferred the participation of the African Union peacekeeping forces to the UN efforts to resolve the conflict in Darfur.

Russia is also being included in international peacekeeping operations on the African continent. As a permanent member of the Security Council, Russia opposes the erosion of the role of the UN and the violation of the rights of the Security Council. Considering that priority should be given to political and diplomatic methods of conflict resolution, Russia does not oppose peace enforcement operations, but demands that they comply with the existing norms of international law. At the same time, it is opposed to unilateral sanctions used as a means of political pressure, considering that sanctions can only be imposed by the UN Security Council.

The Russian Foreign Ministry regularly issues statements that assess and recommend specific conflict situations in Africa. Such statements were made in connection with the crisis situations in 2001-2004 in Somalia; in 2004-2005 in the Sudan; in 2003 in Liberia; in 2000-2003 in the DRC; in 2002 in Ethiopia-Eritrea; in 2002 in the CAR-Chad; in 2003 in Burundi etc.

A number of speeches by representatives of the Russian Federation to the UN at UN Security Council meetings were devoted to conflicts in Africa. Russia has repeatedly put forward initiatives related to unblocking crisis situations. The representative of the Russian Federation was a member of the UN Security Council mission to Central Africa (DRC, Rwanda, Burundi), as well as to South Africa, Angola, Tanzania and Uganda (July 2003). The mission's task was to assist in the search for a solution to the conflict situation in the Great Lakes region. The Russian representative took part in the UN Security Council mission to West Africa (June 2003). In his speech at the official meeting of the UN Security Council on the implementation of the mission's recommendations on January 23, 2004, Deputy Permanent Representative of Russia to the UN A. Konuzin called for special attention to the problems of mercenaries, illegal arms trade, recruitment of child soldiers, etc. In another speech, he called for a thorough analysis of the experience of international peacekeeping in West Africa, noting that the latter is in many ways unique and may be in demand in other regions of Africa. The ideas put forward by the Russian delegation during the UN Security Council mission to West Africa and at the Security Council meeting were reflected in the report of the UN Secretary-General at the UN Security Council meeting on March 25, 2004, devoted to regional and cross-border problems in West Africa.

Russia participates in the Security Council's discussion of a strategy for resolving conflict situations and determining the mandates of peacekeeping operations. Thus, in September 2004, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Shoigu Lavrov held consultations with Winston Tubman, the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative for Somalia, who was in Moscow. In 2004-2005, Russian Minister Sergey Lavrov discussed the crisis situation in Darfur province in telephone talks and a personal meeting with Foreign Minister Mustafa Osman Ismail. Ros-

page 22

It took an active part in the drafting of the resolution adopted by the UN Security Council on February 27, 2004, authorizing a multi-functional UN peacekeeping operation in Côte d'Ivoire.

The 19th session of the IGAD Council of Ministers (November 1999) approved the participation of the Russian Federation in the IGAD Partners Forum as an observer. This decision legally confirmed the actual involvement of our country in the work of this organization, gave it a real opportunity to contribute to the settlement of the conflict situation in this region of East Africa. Russia joined the Forum first in the framework of the Committee on Sudan, and later-and the Committee on Somalia.

The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation supplies weapons and transport services, sends military observers, medical specialists, representatives in the framework of peacekeeping operations to conflict zones, and provides assistance to victims of conflicts.

Russia is involved in almost all UN peacekeeping operations on the continent. It provides personnel for UN peacekeeping operations, assists in the training of African personnel for humanitarian rescue and peacekeeping operations on the basis of the Shot training center.

Russia took an active part in the settlement of the Angolan conflict, acting within the framework of both the UN Security Council and the troika of observers (Russia, the United States, Portugal) for the implementation of the agreements. 158 Russian military personnel and 7 civilian police personnel took part in the mission in Angola.

In 2000, Russia sent military observers to the UN mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where a helicopter detachment also worked under a contract with the UN; it took part in the UN mission in the DRC; Russian peacekeepers joined the UN multinational peacekeeping force in Liberia. At the height of the civil war in Sierra Leone, a Russian contingent of 115 people was deployed here. Under contracts with the UN Secretariat, three Russian-crewed transport helicopters operated to transport UNAMSIL personnel.

25 Russian military observers were sent to Western Sahara; 4 military observers were part of the UN mission in Cote d'Ivoire established in 2004. Russia took part in the UN operation in Burundi authorized by the UN Security Council in 2004.

In December 2005, it was decided to send a Russian military unit to the UN peacekeeping mission in Sudan. At the end of 2005, 10 Russian military observers and 14 civilian police officers were already serving in the mission. In 2006, 4 MI-8 transport and combat helicopters were deployed in Sudan with 133 military units, weapons, ammunition and military equipment. The Russian Federation also expressed its readiness to send a plane with humanitarian aid to the population affected by the conflict.22

Although Russia's peacekeeping activities in Africa have noticeably increased in recent years, it seems that our country's capabilities in this area are not being fully used. In particular, 208 Russians are currently taking part in UN peacekeeping operations. In terms of the number of peacekeepers, Russia is inferior even to small countries in terms of scale and population, which are incomparable to it in terms of weight in international affairs (for example, Poland sent 716 peacekeepers, Ukraine - 556; Ireland-467; Sweden - 336; Slovakia - 293; Mongolia - 257; Romania-243). At the same time, 1,271 Chinese representatives are employed in UN operations.23

In our opinion, Russia could be more active in mediating the settlement of African conflicts. The fact that the United States accounts for the lion's share of funding for peacekeeping operations does not allow our country's voice to be heard loudly enough in Africa. Russia should find a way to play a more significant role in international peacekeeping efforts, since the extent to which it participates in solving such an important problem for Africa largely determines Russia's image on the continent.

1 60 activities of the United Nations. Changing the world for the better. UN publication. October 2005

2 The Surge in UN Peacekeeping. Published by the United Nations Department of Public Information. DP/2392. May 2005 - 15M.

3 Contributors to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Monthly Summary of Contributions (Military Observers, Police and Troops). As of 30 April 2006.

4 UN Peacekeeping Missions - A08621135 html

5 Africa Very Active in Peacekeeping Operations - UN Official. Luanda. May 10, 2006 -

6 Ibidem.

7 "Civil Eight" - 2006. Joint report of the Group of Eight Personal Representatives on Africa. 5.04.2006 -

8 UN Peacekeeping Missions - ipa/A08621135 html

Porteos T. 9 Resolving African Conflicts. Crimes of War. Project October 2004. War in Africa - http://www.crimes of

10 On the extension of the mandate of the UN Mission in Sierra Leone. Message from the Russian Foreign Ministry. August 8, 2000 - http://www. In. Open Document.

11 Q and A: Crisis in Darfur. (Human Rights Watch, 10 - 03 - 2006)

Porteos T. 12 Resolving African Conflicts...

13 Bush Presses Chirac on NATO Involvement in Darfur. 22.02.2006 -

Inozemtsev p 14 The struggle for African oil has begun. - Independent Military Review. 02.02.2006.

15 Ibid.

16 "Civil Eight" - 2006. Joint report...

17 Constitutive Act of the African Union - http://www. africauninon. org /home/ welcome.htm.

18 Assembly of African Union. First Ordinary Session: Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union - http://www/

19 Assembly of the African Union. First Ordinary Session: Decisions and Declarations. 9 - 10 July 2002. Durban. South Africa.

20 "Civil Eight" - 2006. Joint report...

21 Zarubezhnoe voennoe obozrenie [Foreign Military Review], Moscow, 27.06.2005.

22 Russian Peacekeepers Will Leave for Sudan This Week -

23 Contributors to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations...


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