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The recognition of scientific works of domestic Sinologists in China itself has always been considered the highest assessment of their significance. When is my preface to the translation of the modern Chinese novel "Fuzhongzhen" ("In the Lotus Valley") Gu Hua was published in China in Chinese, and I was very happy that the Chinese public could get acquainted with it, although I wrote my work for our readers.

It is fair to say that in China itself, there has always been an interest in the opinion of foreigners about Chinese culture. The political situation often created obstacles to scientific communication, but now, fortunately, this is a thing of the past. Currently, Russian Sinologists work as professors in Chinese universities, such as V. V. Malyavin, and publish their works in Chinese in China itself, as BL. Rifting (Gudian xiaosho yu chuansho. Lifuqing hanxue lunji (Classic novels and legends. Collection of Riftin's sinological works). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 2003).

In addition to publishing articles and books by Russian sinologists, the Chinese scientific community has taken the next step-it has begun a systematic study of the works of Russian Sinologists at Chinese universities.

Thus, Nankai University (Tianjin) published a series of dissertations written in 2004-2005 under the supervision of Prof. Yan Guodong.

First of all, I would like to mention Chen Jingpeng's dissertation " Ego hanxue jia Wang, yu shijie shoubu Zhongguo wenxuyoshi "("Russian Sinologist Vasiliev and the World's First History of Chinese Literature") (2004). The work is based on an extensive bibliographic material, and in addition to the exhaustive Chinese part, in which both books and articles are given separately, the literature about V. P. Vasiliev in Russian is also given: lifetime first editions of the XIX century and articles by Sinologists of the Soviet period.

It is worth recalling that V. P. Vasiliev's Essay on the History of Chinese Literature was published in 1880. And the first history of Chinese literature in English by G. Giles" A History of Chinese Literature " was published only in 1902. The dissertation candidate expresses regret that the pioneering work of the Russian sinologist has not yet been translated into Chinese. He highly appreciates the work of V. P. Vasiliev: "We will study Vasiliev's main principles and conclusions about Chinese literature, including his scientific research methods, which are very useful for modern historians and literary critics" (p.III).

For Chen Jingpeng, the priority of Vasiliev's work is unquestionable. He believes that "it is unacceptable for Russian and Chinese sinologists to neglect the significance of this work, since with its help Chinese literature is introduced into the system of research and methodology of modern science, and ancient Eastern culture begins to be read anew according to the criteria of Western civilization" (p.6).

The Chinese scientist could not help but be surprised by the fact that the appearance in Russia of a remarkable work, decades ahead of the achievements of European science in this field, did not cause any response from V. P. Vasiliev's contemporaries - the work was met with complete silence. Whether this was due to political reasons or simply the lack of minimal interest in the subject, domestic scientists have yet to find out. However, the election of V. P. Vasiliev to the Academy of Sciences in 1886, where he became the first academician-sinologist, indicates a certain attention to the scientist.

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The Chinese dissertation researcher rightly notes that V. P. Vasiliev himself was aware of the pioneering nature of his work and, moreover, took a critical position in relation to contemporary European Sinology, reproaching such authors as Remuse and Legg for being overly superstitious about traditional Chinese commentaries. After analyzing Vasiliev's work in detail, in which literature is presented according to the thematic principle, and not according to the historical and chronological principle now accepted in China, Chen Jingpeng sees in this the influence of such Chinese works as "Siku Quanshu" ("General Bibliography of all books in all four sections").

The dissertation candidate finds a great interest in the Confucian classics in the Russian sinologist and does not actually object to this, recognizing Confucianism as a kind of ideological bridge connecting ancient and modern Chinese literature in the history. Not without pride in the Russian sinology of more than a century ago, he writes:" There are passages in Vasiliev's Essay that deserve the close attention of researchers of Chinese literature today. This is mainly due to his refined understanding of "Shijing". He was opposed to the traditional Confucian interpretation of this work, and had doubts about the time of its creation. The fact that Vasiliev regards the Shijing as the beginning of Chinese literature and gives a high assessment of its historical significance allows us to say that even from today's point of view, its conclusions still retain vitality" (p.25). Chen Jingpeng clearly sympathizes with the Russian sinologist when, after outlining the contents of the Confucian section of the Essay, he comes to the conclusion: "He courageously tries to look at truth and falsehood, achievements and losses among ancient and modern scientists with the eyes of a modern person, and points out a clear direction for future research" (p.40).

Not all of the hypotheses and conclusions of the Russian scientist have retained their value for Chinese science. Many problems that were relevant 200 years ago now have a different solution based on the newly discovered material for science and are interesting only as the history of sinology. Among those hypotheses that deserve further research, Chen Jingpeng notes the idea of V. P. Vasiliev about the influence of Buddhism on Mengzi: "This bold assumption still opens the field for modern researchers to study the treatise Mengzi and shows that we cannot ignore and ignore the remarkable works" (p. 32).

The section on Buddhism in V. P. Vasiliev's work, especially the analysis of the influence of the Buddhist religion on the spiritual world of man, made the most positive impression on the Chinese dissertation student, which is not surprising, because the Russian sinologist was famous for his works on Buddhism.

The thoroughness of Chen Jingpeng's approach to Vasiliev's work shows his attitude to the first translation into Russian of Su Shi's poem "Huayang", which was made by A. A. Fet in 1856 for" Domestic Notes", and then used in an edited form in V. P. Vasiliev's" Essay". The discrepancies in the translation are not surprising, because A. A. Fet was a poet, and Vasiliev was a scientist, and the goals of the translation were different.

V. P. Vasiliev's" great contribution "to the study of" fine literature " (yavenxue) is considered by the Chinese dissertation researcher to be the fact that the Russian scholar included the tanqi genre in the field of fine literature: "The author explained tanqi as a story written in a poetically written form. The Tan Chinese are essentially folk literature and do not occupy a high position. At the end of the nineteenth century, this view can be called foresight. Vasiliev bought a large number of tanza's works. Among the publications currently stored in Russia, most of them were brought by him" (p. 53).

Chen Jingpeng notes that Vasiliev's Essay was not only the first work on the history of Chinese literature, it was also the first to examine folk literature, which was not even the case in the first Chinese works on the history of literature. Let the section of folk literature was small at Vasiliev and reported information only about drama, novels and novels, but the main thing here was the very recognition of the equality of folk literature with belles lettres, which was not soon reached in China. According to the dissertation candidate, the Russian sinologist considered "Hong Lou meng" ("Dream in the Red Tower") to be the best Chinese novel. Over the past 200 years, this assessment of this work by the first historian of Chinese literature has not been refuted.

In the final part of the dissertation, the Chinese scientist notes the "innovative spirit" and "originality of thinking" of the Russian sinologist: "Without exaggerating at all, I will say that Vasiliev helps us to understand Chinese literature in a new way" (p. 61). The enthusiastic praise of the Chinese scientist is due to the fact that in the main he turned out to be like-minded Vasiliev

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And so I wrote: "The obvious peculiarity of the Essay is that the author adheres to the soul of Chinese literature-Confucianism. If he were to talk about so-called folk literature on the model of Western literary history, he might wander into a thicket of misunderstanding, and as a result, the place of folk literature in China at that time would not be recognized. Being the basis of traditional culture, Confucianism has become the core of scholarship for several millennia "(61). The Chinese dissertation candidate is particularly impressed by the optimism of Vasiliev's work, who saw * Chinese literature not as a dead antiquity, but as a living, reviving force. He predicted its future prosperity and renewal, its preservation of its originality, despite the European influence.

After V. P. Vasiliev, Academician V. M. Alekseev was an outstanding Russian sinologist. His activities related to the rescue, preservation and research of the Chinese folk New Year's painting - Chinese splint (Nianhua), became the subject of Wang Peimei's dissertation "On the collection and research of Chinese folk paintings in Russia" (2004). In China, nianhua was very cheap, and it was customary for religious reasons to burn old splints every year and hang new ones, so in China itself, splints were not valued or collected. The first Nianhua exhibition in China was held in 1937. The largest Chinese specialist in splint, Prof. Wang Shoucun collected more than 10 thousand of them. Outside of China, the largest collection of nianhua is kept in the museums of St. Petersburg (more than 6 thousand). Many of the works we have in China are not preserved and are unique.

The dissertation has a special section on Russian collectors of Chinese lubka, the predecessors of V. M. Alekseev. Our first collectors were V. P. Vasiliev and O. M. Kovalevsky. After them, Wang Peimei names D. A. Rovinsky, G. N. Potanin, V. L. Komarov, and F. V. Stasov. The most significant collection belongs to V. M. Alekseev - about 4 thousand nianhua. After V. M. Alekseev, V. F. Novetsky, N. D. Vinogradov, P. K. Kozlov, B. I. Pankratov, and V. S. Starikov continued collecting Chinese splint in Russia. Currently, an active collector is B. L. Riftin, who has over 100 original works of Nianhua.

Having valuable material, domestic sinologists actively study it. The dissertation contains literature on Chinese popular print published in Russia and the USSR, with special attention being paid to the works of Academician V. M. Alekseev and his research methodology. A special section in the dissertation is dedicated to the works of B. L. Riftin - "Riftin and the Chinese folk picture" (p. 50). The dissertation ends with a report on scientific works on Chinese popular print by I. F. Murian, I. P. Garanin, M. L. Rudova and T. I. Vinogradova. In the afterword, the dissertation candidate tells about his conversation with B. L. Riftin in China and thanks the Russian specialist for the consultation.

It is extremely gratifying that Chinese scientists have turned their attention to the experience of teaching Chinese in Russia. Here, the main figure is certainly our first Sinologist, academician V. P. Vasiliev, to whom Wu He's dissertation "Ego zaotida hanxue jiaoxue - Vasiliefu "hanzi jiesi" chutan" ("The first experience of research "Analysis of Chinese characters" by Vasiliev. Teaching Chinese characters in Russia in the early period") (2005). The author rightly noted that "the basics of teaching and learning Chinese in Russia were progressive and based on advanced teaching theories..." Analysis of Chinese characters " is the first textbook in Russia (even, perhaps, in the world), which was specially created for mastering Chinese characters by foreigners. It appeared in the middle of the XGH century.... In the manual, V. Vasiliev's theory of the" features "and" elements " of Chinese hieroglyphics shines with wisdom in our time. Studying the experience of teaching Chinese abroad can be useful when teaching Chinese as a foreign language in our country " (p. II).

V. P. Vasiliev invented a graphical system of vocabulary arrangement of Chinese characters, which became generally accepted in dictionaries published in Russia (Rosenberg, 1916; Kolokolov, 1935; Oshanin, 1952; 1983). In China itself, this system is not used, although it has many advantages and faithfully serves more than one generation of sinologists in our country. It greatly facilitates the study of Chinese characters by foreigners due to its simplicity, since it is based on one, the last final feature of the Chinese character.

The third chapter of Wu He's dissertation is devoted to the real meaning of Vasiliev's graphic system, which the author figuratively calls the "alphabet of Chinese characters". The graphical systems of Chinese dictionaries are much more complex and difficult to learn than the Vasiliev system, while

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however, the simplest of them comes from the two initial lines of the hieroglyph, and not from the last one, which complicates the dictionary search.

Li Lihua's dissertation Geerjiefusijidy Zhongguo Shenhua yanjiu (Studies of Chinese Mythology by Georgievsky) (2005) rightly points out that S. M. Georgievsky's book "Mythical Views and Myths of the Chinese" (St. Petersburg, 1892) is the first study of Chinese mythology in the world, which was appreciated both in China and around the world thanks to the wealth of materials presented in it, the originality of views and scientific methods of approach to research. The main idea of this work, as well as the other five books written by S. M. Georgievsky, is to defend the value of Chinese culture. According to Li Lihua, S. M. Georgievsky's work can be used for further study of Chinese mythology.

I note that during the Soviet period, S. M. Georgievsky's works were hardly mentioned in his homeland, except for the well-known article by A. A. Petrov "The Philosophy of China in Russian Bourgeois Sinology" (Bibliography of the East, 1935, issue 7). Li Lihua believes that A. A. Petrov's article was laudable, but the term"China's Philosophy in Russian Bourgeois Sinology" was used to describe it. bourgeois Sinology " in 1935 spoke more than any praise about the true attitude to S. M. Georgievsky.

Speaking about the scientific contribution of S. M. Georgievsky to the study of myths, Li Lihua cites the following conclusions made by the scientist: in the field of Chinese mythology, mythical views first appear and only then myths are formed on this basis; mythical views of the Chinese and their myths are very rich; there is a phenomenon of historicization of Chinese myths and mythologization of Chinese history, so we can safely say that the" oldest " history of China before Shun is a myth formed on the basis of folk mythical views, and that the three rulers, five emperors, and cultural heroes are mythical characters; in the mythical views of the Chinese, the highest ruling spirit God (Shangdi) is mixed with the Sky together. These findings were groundbreaking at the time and are still valuable and deserve further study by researchers inside China and abroad. S. M. Georgievsky presented the mythical views of the Chinese by categories, including mythical stories, historical legends, stories of saints, religious myths and other rich materials on traditional Chinese culture. This is the most precious wealth for today's sinologist researchers. In his book, the scientist applied philological and linguistic analyses as methods of studying the material and thereby indicated the direction of further development of Sinological research, as well as made a contribution to the protection and popularization of traditional Chinese culture. Li Lihua considers his contribution to protecting the place of Chinese traditional civilization in the history of world civilization to be positive.

In conclusion, the series of Chinese dissertations created at Nankai University proves that the research of the greatest Russian sinologists of the 19th century was in some respects ahead of the achievements of European sinology of their time, has retained its significance to the present day, and even has an applied practical value, like the graphic system of Chinese hieroglyphics by V. P. Vasiliev. Russian sinologists conducted their scientific research quite independently and maintained a critical attitude towards European sinology, relying on their own knowledge of Chinese sources. Due to the peculiarities of political and historical processes, these works of domestic sinologists remained unknown in China itself and only now, in the XXI century, attract the attention of Chinese scientists. The achievements of domestic researchers adequately represent our science and are met with the warmest attitude in China. It is hoped that the works of V. P. Vasiliev and S. M. Georgievsky will be translated into Chinese in China among the classic works of foreign sinologists and will be placed in a common row with the main works of European and American sinology.


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