Libmonster ID: SE-345
Author(s) of the publication: I. O. ABRAMOVA

I. O. ABRAMOVA

Candidate of Economic Sciences

Migration Keywords:Spain, A fricalabor resourcesintegrationillegal migration

Spain became an attractive country for migrants only in the mid-1980s. The first migrants were Europeans, mostly retired people, who were attracted by the warm climate of Spain. After the fall of the "iron curtain" and the aggravation of socio-economic problems in a number of third world countries, flows of legal and illegal migrants rushed to Spain.

In 1975, there were 200,000 foreigners in Spain. Over the next 25 years, the number of legal migrants alone increased to 1 million, accounting for 2.5% of the country's population of 40 million. At the beginning of 2008, the number of migrants in Spain reached 5.22 million, of whom 3.98 million had an official residence permit, while the remaining 1.24 million were illegal immigrants. In 2008, foreigners accounted for 11.3% of Spain's 46 million population1. At the same time, most of the population growth in this country in recent years has been due to the influx of migrants.

IMMIGRATION TO REPLACE EMIGRATION

The reasons that have turned Spain into a country of immigration are related to both the internal situation in Spain and external socio-economic and political factors. Spain's EU membership and sustained economic growth in the 2000s, right up to the onset of the financial and economic crisis, made the country very attractive for migrants.

The rise in the standard of living of Spaniards was an indirect reason for the shortage of workers in a number of sectors of the economy, in particular in agriculture, where earnings no longer corresponded to the living standards of the average Spaniard.

Spain's liberal migration policy in the 1980s and 1990s was also an important factor that stimulated external migration. The tightening of migration laws in traditional recipient countries such as Germany, France, and Switzerland, which began in the 1970s, as well as in the United States in the mid-1980s, has made Spain very attractive to Latinos and Filipinos. The threat of dictatorship in many Latin American countries, as well as in the former Spanish colonies in Africa, in particular, in Equatorial Guinea, has led to increased migration flows to Spain from outside for political reasons.

For African migrants from North and West Africa, economic reasons played an important role, first of all, the gap in the living standards of an African and a resident of Spain. In addition, Spain's geographical position, separated from the African continent by only 14 km of the Strait of Gibraltar, greatly facilitated the movement of migrants to this country. It should not be forgotten that there are two Spanish enclaves in Africa-Ceuta and Melilla, which have also become important transit points for migrants traveling from Africa to Europe in recent years.

HOW MANY FOREIGNERS ARE THERE IN SPAIN?

All of the above factors contributed to the intensification of migration flows to Spain. Between 1999 and 2006, the number of legal migrants in this country increased 6.5 times 2 (see Table 1).

The largest group of immigrants are Moroccans. In 1999, they accounted for 48.5% of all migrants, and in 2006 -25.6%. Despite the decline in the proportion of Moroccans due to the growing number of migrants from Latin America and Europe, they continue to be the largest group of legal migrants. In second place today are Ecuadorians - 376.2 thousand people, or 17.7% of all migrants in 2006, in third - Colombians (225.5 thousand - 10.6%), in fourth - Romanians (211.3 thousand people-9.9%).

As for legal migrants from other African countries, their share in 1999 did not exceed 7% (23.5 thousand migrants) and 4.4% in 2006 (94.9 thousand people). Most of them are from Algeria


The article was prepared with the financial support of the Russian State Scientific Foundation. Project N 09 - 02 - 00551 a / R.

page 18

Table 1

Legal immigrants in Spain in 1999-2006 (by country of origin, thousand people)

 

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Morocco

161,8

199,7

234,9

282,4

333,7

386,9

493,1

543,7

Peru

27,2

27,8

33,7

39,0

57,5

71,2

82,5

90,9

Dominican Republic

26,8

26,4

29,3

32,4

36,6

42,9

50,7

58,1

China

24,6

28,6

36,1

45,8

56,0

71,8

85,7

99,5

Argentina

16,2

16,6

20,4

27,9

43,3

56,1

82,4

86,9

Colombia

13,6

24,7

48,7

71,2

107,4

137,3

204,3

225,5

Ecuador

12,9

30,8

84,6

115,3

174,2

221,5

357,0

376,2

Algeria

9,9

13,8

15,2

20,0

23,7

27,5

35,4

39,4

Brazil

8,1

10,0

10,9

12,9

14,5

17,5

26,8

30,2

Senegal

7,7

11,0

11,5

14,7

16,8

19,3

27,6

28,5

Poland

6,5

8,1

11,3

12,8

15,8

23,6

34,6

48,0

Pakistan

5,1

7,8

14,3

15,5

17,6

18,0

28,7

29,6

Romania

5,0

10,9

24,8

33,7

54,6

83,3

192,1

211,3

Nigeria

4,2

3,2

5,1

6,9

9,7

11,2

17,3

19,0

Bulgaria

3,0

5,2

9,9

15,4

24,3

32,2

56,3

60,1

Mauritania

1,6

3,7

4,0

4,5

5,3

5,7

7,7

7,8

Bolivia

1,2

1,7

3,3

4,9

7,0

11,4

50,7

52,5

Ukraine

1,0

3,5

9,1

14,8

21,5

27,4

49,8

52,7

Total

333,5

434,5

607,7

770,9

1020,6

1265,7

1883,3

2120,8



Источник: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntas Sociales. Secretaria de Estado de Immigrasion y Emigrassion. Anuario estadistico de Extranjeria. Madrid, 1999 - 2006.

(1.9% of migrants), Senegal (1.3%), Nigeria (0.9%) and Mauritania.

In 2008, Africans accounted for 17.2% of all legal migrants in Spain, of which Moroccans continued to completely dominate - they accounted for 71.8% of all Africans who received a residence permit, and 12.3% of all legal immigrants in Spain.

WHERE DO MIGRANTS LIVE AND WORK?

The distribution of migrants in different provinces of Spain indicates that the most popular are agricultural and tourist regions located along the Mediterranean coast of the country, as well as Barcelona, Valencia, Madrid, the Canary and Balearic Islands. About 80% of all migrants in Spain are concentrated in 6 of the 17 provinces and two cities, including Catalonia (22%), Madrid (19), Valencia (16), Andalusia (12), the Canary Islands (5) and Murcia (4.5%). As for the provinces where the share of migrants in the population exceeded the Spanish average of 11.3%, these are the Balearic Islands -20.8%, Catalonia-17.9%, Valencia-16.7%, Madrid - 15.9%, Murcia - 15.7% and the Canary Islands-13.6%. Even in small areas like Rioja and Aragon, foreigners make up 13.7% and 11.6% of the population, respectively. At the same time, immigrants from Africa are concentrated mainly in Madrid, in the province of Catalonia, primarily in its capital - Barcelona, as well as in Andalusia, Valencia and other agricultural provinces.3

More than 75% of working-age migrants in Spain are employed. Unemployment among the migrant population reached 20% in 2008, which was almost one and a half times higher than the national level (14%). 88% of all migrants were employees. 25% of all migrants are employed in the catering and hotel industry, 20% in construction, 17% in retail trade, and 15% in agriculture .4

As for Africans, approximately 62% of them are employed in trade and services, 24% in agriculture, and 9% in construction.5

Spain has never been an attractive country for refugees who can obtain a residence permit in the EU under the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. This is due to the low level of the EU refugee quota set for Spain, as well as the fact that it is still quite easy to enter Spain illegally, especially compared to other European countries.

In 1984, there were only 1,100 refugees in Spain, including their families; in 1989, this figure rose to only 4,100. After the collapse of the socialist camp, the number of refugees began to increase and reached a peak of 12,600 in 1993-

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lovek. In subsequent years, this figure ranged from 5 to 10 thousand per year. At the same time, 60-70% of applicants for refugee status did not receive it.

In the first half of the 2000s, the bulk of applicants began to be Africans, primarily Nigerians, whose number annually exceeded 5 thousand people (80% of all applicants for refugee status). Since 2005, they have been replaced by Colombians.6

In 2007-2008, about 8,000 people applying for refugee status arrived in Spain annually, more than half of them were Africans. Most of them were waiting for a decision in special camps, where the duration of their stay could not exceed 11 months. Despite the rather harsh conditions of detention, many migrants, especially Africans, were very eager to get there.7

In general, migrants seeking refugee status make up a small proportion in Spain compared to other categories of migrants and play a secondary role in migration processes in this country.

THE SCOURGE OF SPAIN - AFRICAN ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS

A completely different picture appears when analyzing illegal migration. Of course, the exact number of illegal immigrants in Spain is impossible to determine. A number of experts believe that this figure reaches 1.5 - 1.6 million people today, and most of them are Africans8. At the same time, the assessments of the two leading political parties in Spain - the Socialist and the Popular - are very different from each other, which reflects the essence of the migration policy of each of them. For example, socialists, who were quite loyal to migrants, estimate the number of illegal immigrants at only 200 thousand people, while the leaders of the People's Party, known for their intolerant attitude towards immigrants, increase this figure by at least 7-8 times.9

If we talk about the distribution of illegal migrants by country of origin, then according to T. Barbulo, a member of the People's Party, who gave an interview to the author of this study in November 2009, 80% of all illegal migrants in Spain come from Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Mali and Nigeria, and 15% are Algerians and Moroccans. The main flows of illegal migration from the African continent are directed towards the Canary Islands and Andalusia - the southernmost province of Spain. Approximately 40% of all illegal immigrants consider Spain as a transit country for further travel to other EU countries, mainly to France and Germany. The main activity of illegal immigrants in Spain is street trading, as well as small services for servicing tourists.

WHO IS HE - AN ILLEGAL MIGRANT FROM AFRICA?

In 2006-2009, the author conducted a survey of 123 street vendors in Barcelona, Seville, Malaga, as well as in Torremolinos and Benalmadena (two resort towns located in Andalusia). Their business is focused on serving tourists, the main products are bags, sunglasses, watches, cheap jewelry and clothing items. The survey was conducted in the form of an informal conversation.

The survey found the following::

1. The largest group of respondents were Senegalese - 58 people. They were followed by Gambians - 21 people, Nigerians-18, Malians-11, Mauritanians-9 and Moroccans-6 people.

2. Out of 123 respondents, 5 were women. They were all Moroccan women and sold cheap jewelry made of silver and plastic.

3. The average age of the respondents was 28 years for men and 26 years for women.

4. The average length of stay in Spain is 1 year and 7 months. At the same time, the longest period of stay is 4 years and 9 months (a 30 - year-old merchant from Morocco), the shortest is 3 months (a 23 - year-old Malian).

5. When asked about the status of 52 people, they refused to answer, while the rest stated that they were in Spain legally. Most likely, this information is incorrect.

6. 84 respondents, or 68%, were residents of cities before migration.

7. All respondents were able to read and write, 63 people (51%) said that they graduated from incomplete or full secondary school.

8. 112 male tradesmen (93%) were single. Of the five women surveyed, four are married.

9. Every third respondent had relatives in Spain.

The answers to the following questions are of particular interest:

1. "Are you satisfied with your current situation?" 43 people answered-yes, 67-no, the rest found it difficult to answer.

2." Has your financial situation improved since arriving in Spain? " 112 people (91%) answered positively.

3." Would you like to change your occupation? " 76 people (62%) answered yes, 23 - no, the rest found it difficult to answer.

4. "Would you like to get an education in Spain?" 32 people answered positively, 27-negatively, the rest found it difficult to answer.

5. "Do you send money to your relatives back home?" 101 people (82%) responded positively. Of these, 85 refused to answer the question about the amount of transfers, while the remaining 16 said that they transfer from $ 50 to $ 100. per month.

6. "What channels do you use to send money?"

28 people (27%) answered-official, the remaining 73 people said that they were transferring money

page 20

Table 2

Number of migrants detained by the Spanish authorities

Year

Arrivals via the Strait of Gibraltar

Arrivals via the Canary Islands

Total

Percentage of arrivals via the Canary Islands

1993

4952

 

4952

 

1994

4189

 

4189

 

1995

5287

 

5287

 

1996

7741

 

7741

 

1997

7348

 

7348

 

1998

7031

 

7031

 

1999

7178

875

8053

10,86

2000

16885

2387

19272

12,38

2001

14405

4112

18517

22,20

2002

6748

9756

16504

59,11

2003

9794

9382

19176

48,92

2004

7425

8426

15851

53,15

2005

7066

4715

11781

40,02

2006

6976

31106

38082

81,68

2007

4342

8600

12942

66,45



Источник: The 2007 Report of the Andalusien Human Right Association. Seville. 2008. P. 32 - 33.

through relatives and friends, or use other informal channels.

7. "Would you like to stay in Spain forever?"31 people (25%) answered positively, 45 (37%) - negatively, the rest found it difficult to answer. 38 people said they wanted to move to Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

8." Would you like to return to your homeland? " 86 people (70%) answered negatively, 22 (18%) - positively, the rest found it difficult to answer.

9." How do local residents treat you? " 68 people (63%) answered - good, 25 - bad, the rest found it difficult to answer.

10. "How do you feel about local residents?" 107 people (87%) answered - good, 14 - bad, the rest found it difficult to answer.

11. "How do you assess Spain's migration policy?" 21 people answered positively, 42-negatively, the rest found it difficult to answer.

Summing up the results of this survey, it should be noted that the majority of Africans were quite willing to answer questions, especially when the author said that he was a Russian scientist. The specific feature of the survey was that only a certain category of African migrants came into our field of view - street vendors whose activities are semi-legal in nature. At the same time, the results of the survey, in our opinion, are somewhat indicative of the characteristics of African migrants engaged in informal activities in the Spanish service sector. The average illegal or semi-legal African migrant in Spain is a former resident of West Africa, under the age of 30, mostly single, with a primary or secondary education and with a low level of professional training. He is in no hurry to return to his homeland, but also does not want to stay in Spain forever, preferring to eventually move to the richer countries of the European Union.

SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN COMBATING ILLEGAL MIGRATION

In the late 1990s, the Spanish Government launched a border control system for migrants, which included special radars, thermal security cameras, night vision equipment, infrared emitters, helicopters and boats. With its help, it was supposed to establish control over the boats of migrants traveling from Morocco through the Strait of Gibraltar.

The effectiveness of this system is very ambiguous, since the number of illegal immigrants, although it decreased in 2005 compared to 2004, but since 2006 it has started to grow again. At the same time, the main routes of movement of migrants have changed. If earlier migrants reached the territory of Spain mainly from Morocco via Gibraltar, now they are sailing on fragile ships-

Table 3

The number of illegal African migrants intercepted by the Moroccan authorities

Year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

The Moroccans

9353

13327

16034

12493

9353

7440

7091

6023

Other Africans

15056

13100

15363

23851

17252

21140

9469

6954

Total

24409

26427

31397

36344

26605

28580

16560

12977



Источник: Interior Ministry, Department of Migration and Border Surveillance. Rabat. 2008.

page 21

flights from Mauritania and even from Senegal, which greatly increases both the danger of such a route and its cost. Between 2006 and 2007, the Spanish Government, together with the authorities of Mauritania, Morocco and Cape Verde, established a double border control system, which led to a significant reduction in the number of illegal migrants traveling to Spain via the Canary Islands.

The main routes used by African migrants to enter Spanish territory have undergone a certain transformation in recent years. For the analysis of the main directions of movement of illegal migrants, the data on arrests of illegal migrants provided by the Spanish customs authorities are most indicative (see Table 2).

Until the mid-2000s, the main route of migrants ' movement was the Strait of Gibraltar. However, increased border controls in this area have led to migrants entering Spain via the Canary Islands since 2003, with the peak of illegal migration in this direction occurring in 2006, when 31,106 illegal migrants were arrested and sent home in the Canary Islands.

The Canary Islands, despite the measures taken by the Spanish authorities, continue to be the main transit territory for Africans to Spain. Every year, tens of thousands of Africans risk their lives on small boats to Spain (usually landing in the Canary Islands) in order to find a better share in this European country. Africans travel to Spain and through Morocco (see Table 3).

As can be seen from Table 3, the number of illegal migrants detained in Morocco has been decreasing in recent years. After the peak of 2003, when more than 36,000 illegal immigrants were intercepted, two-thirds of whom were from sub-Saharan Africa, the number of illegal migrants decreased by almost 3 times by 2007. At the same time, the number of illegal Moroccans has decreased by 2.7 times over the past 5 years, after a peak in 2002, and other Africans-by 3.4 times from 2003 to 2007. This reduction is primarily due to the strengthening of border controls on the territory of Morocco, as well as to the strengthening of the fight of the Moroccan and European authorities against the network of illegal human traffickers, during which more than 1,800 criminal groups and individual criminals were stopped in this "business" from 2004 to 2008 alone.

In general, the EU aims to turn Morocco into a kind of police country for Europe by creating absorption camps for migrants on its territory, where they wait for a certain time for official permission to stay in one of the European countries, as well as investing heavily in strengthening border controls on the northern and southern borders of Morocco.

The policy of "voluntary return of migrants" with financial and material support from the International Organization for Migration (MOM), implemented by the EU since 2006 in the framework of the Africa Plan 2006 - 2008, initiated by Spain, also played a role. In accordance with this policy, illegal migrants identified by local authorities must leave the host country within a strictly agreed time frame. The costs of their return to their homeland are shared between international organizations (in particular, MOM), the recipient country and the donor country.

Spain has signed agreements on the voluntary return of migrants with Algeria, Cape Verde, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea (Conakry), Mali, Morocco, Cameroon, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Libya and Mauritania. These measures have led to some results: in 2007, the number of illegal immigrants traveling through the Canary Islands decreased by 60%, and through Gibraltar-by 25%.

Increased border controls were also observed in the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, located in Morocco. Until the late 1980s, it was quite easy to cross the border of these enclaves, and their control was formal. Since the 1990s, the technical equipment of the borders of Ceuta and Melilla has been constantly improved, and in 1996, by the decision of the Spanish Ministry of Internal Affairs, these territories were surrounded by reinforced border walls with radars and video cameras. Despite the fact that the total flow of illegal immigrants entering the territories of Ceuta and Melilla has sharply decreased, from time to time illegal migrants literally storm the walls of these enclaves. The most famous case is the simultaneous storming of the walls by 1,500 illegal immigrants in October 2005, about a thousand of whom broke through to Ceuta and Melilla, hundreds were injured, and 14 people were killed.

METAMORPHOSES OF THE SPANISH MIGRATION POLICY

In an attempt to limit illegal migration, Spain has resorted to methods such as setting quotas for temporarily employed labor. Quotas first appeared in 1993, and in the 1990s could be applied to illegal migrants already in Spain. In the 2000s, this regime was changed: recruitment of labor under the quota was carried out directly in the donor countries, but it was not effective enough, primarily due to the low quota level (in 2006 - 16,700 people, in 2007 and 2008 - 15,700).

Another method of combating illegal migration is

page 22

conclusion of special bilateral cooperation agreements with African and other States on joint control of migration flows. Such agreements were signed by Spain with Morocco and Nigeria in 2001, with the Gambia in 2006, and with Mauritania, Mali and Guinea in 2007.10

With sufficient regularity, the Spanish authorities conduct campaigns to legalize illegal migrants. They were held in Spain in 1985, 1991, 1996, 2000, 2001 and 2005. In 2005, out of 691.6 thous. 578.4 thousand applications of illegal migrants for the so-called "normalization" (normalizacion) were granted (the largest number of legalized illegal immigrants in the EU in one year). The main condition for legalization is the presence of a job, as well as confirmation from the employer that the migrant will continue to have this job in the near future. In other words, employers applied for "normalization". The application was registered only if the applicant was a member of the social insurance system, i.e. made the corresponding contributions to the social funds of Spain.

Legalization was primarily directed against the black labor market, especially in the construction and service sectors.11 In addition, since 2005, illegal migrants can be legalized if they can prove that they have "put down roots in Spain" - have a permanent job, own real estate, or are married to a Spanish citizen or citizen.

Legalization, of course, does not solve all the problems. Many migrants, especially Africans, prefer informal employment to avoid paying taxes. Therefore, according to some experts, within the framework of the migration policy, it is necessary to facilitate access to the labor market for qualified migrants, strengthen control over vacancies and improve conditions for the return of illegal migrants to their homeland.

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS AND MIGRATION

The financial and economic crisis that broke out in 2008 had a direct impact on migration flows. On the one hand, in Spain, unemployment among the local population has sharply increased, which has reduced the scope of employment of migrants. Already in 2008, unemployment among migrants reached 20%.

Since September 2008, Spain has launched a special program for the return of unemployed migrants to their homeland, developed by the Minister of Economy and Finance P. Solbes. Migrants received a small sum from Spanish social services to cover the costs of returning to their country of origin, and additional monetary compensation upon arrival. At the same time, they gave a written commitment not to return to Spain in the next 3 years. This program applies only to those 19 countries (including Morocco, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania and Guinea) that have concluded social cooperation agreements with Spain.

In 2009, the Council of Ministers of Spain developed a new migration law. The draft law on changes in immigration legislation was sent for approval to the State Council, the Socio-Economic Council and the General Council of the Judiciary. The law is also discussed by non-governmental organizations such as the Immigration Conference and the Immigrants ' Forum. After the relevant amendments are made, the document will be returned to the Council of Ministers, which, in turn, will send it to the Parliament.

The main innovations of the legislation are as follows::

1. The rights of foreigners to family reunification will change; the right to family reunification will remain with immigrants who have legally lived in Spain for more than a year. This was the case before, but now not only spouses and their children under the age of 18, including children from previous marriages, but also officially registered cohabitants (pareja de hecho) will be considered family members. The ability of immigrants to call their parents to Spain is restricted. Now only foreigners who have lived in Spain for more than 5 years will have this right, and their parents must be at least 65 years old (in Spain, this is the retirement age). Children who reach the age of 16 and reunited spouses will automatically receive the right to work, which was not provided for in previous legislation.

2. Due to difficulties in processing the repatriation of illegal immigrants, the period of their detention will be extended from the current 40 to 60 days, with the right to extend it for another 10 days by court decision.

3. Illegal migrants will be guaranteed free legal aid, the right to receive education, and participation in public life. Public control over illegal detention centers is being established.

4. Fines imposed on employers for immigration violations will increase: for minor violations - from 300 to 500 euros, for moderate violations - from 6000 to 10000 euros, and for serious violations - from 60,000 to 100,000 euros. Entrepreneurs who use illegal labor will now have to pay for repatriation in addition to paying a fine. Fictitious employers, i.e. those who enter into an employment contract with a foreigner solely for the purpose of legalizing the latter, without real employment, will be fined from 10001 to 100000 euros for each fictitious contract. Fictitious marriages registered for the same purpose will result in a fine of the same amount.

page 23

5. The extradition of illegal immigrants will now be accompanied by a ban on entry to the country for 5 years instead of the current 10 years. Detained illegal immigrants will now be given the opportunity to avoid being banned from entering Spain if they voluntarily and at their own expense leave the country after being detained. The court gives from 1 week to 1 month for this.

6. It becomes possible for accredited public organizations to monitor the detention of illegal immigrants in internment camps. Illegal immigrants get the right to participate in associations, trade unions, associations, strikes and demonstrations. Illegal immigrants under the age of 18 are entitled to free education, as well as free legal aid. Previously, only legal immigrants had this right.12

Despite positive changes in Spain's migration policy, the situation of migrants is unlikely to improve in the coming years. The CSIF Union's Immigration Assistance Service has released statistics that show a "significant" increase in the number of refusals to foreigners, mainly labor immigrants, in the right to live in Spain. It is also noted that it is less and less possible to get permission for family reunification in Spain, the reason is the same-the growth of unemployment.

The fact is that to extend a working residence permit in Spain, which is given first for a year, then for two years, etc., it is necessary to confirm the fact of at least six months of working time with the payment of deductions to the Spanish treasury. In the context of the economic crisis, not every immigrant can find a job even for six months. To call their family, an immigrant must obtain prior permission from the local authorities in Spain. And to do this, it is necessary to confirm that the reuniting resident has sufficient income to support the family. In the context of the economic crisis, this is not possible for everyone 13. The Spanish authorities are trying to limit the work of migrants in order to free up jobs for Spaniards, among whom unemployment is growing. In particular, in September 2009, the Government offered immigrants a one-time payment of two years ' worth of unemployment benefits on the condition that they leave the country14.

* * *

In general, Spain's migration policy in the coming years is likely to comply with the general principles of the EU General Policy on migration, which provide for strict control over migration flows, encouraging labor migration, which is of interest to host European states, combating illegal migration, developing a coordinated migration policy for all EU members, and supporting humanitarian initiatives. initiatives in this area, the integration of immigrants into European society.

Public funds allocated for integration purposes in Spain are constantly growing. In 2009 they will amount to 200 million euros. At the same time, the policy of assimilation of migrants can be successful only if the share of a particular migration community in the local population is small. The value of this share depends on a number of socio-economic, political, religious and cultural factors, but, according to our observations, it cannot be higher than 3-5%. In a number of countries, this quota is directly related to the quota for passing the electoral barrier for parties or groups in elections (5-7%). The higher the proportion of immigrants of the same nationality in the local population, the weaker their ties with local residents, as opposed to those within the community.

The formation of migrant communities with a subculture of countries of origin can be formed both at the local (city, locality) and at the national level. It is no coincidence that migrants from African countries prefer to settle together in the same city or in rural areas. In Spanish cities, entire neighborhoods are formed that are populated by the Arab population (for example, the Al-Basin quarter in Granada).

In our opinion, assimilation of large migrant communities, such as Moroccans, Senegalese, Algerians, and Nigerians, is very difficult in Spain. A similar situation with African communities, primarily Arab, has developed in other European countries - France, Italy, Germany, Great Britain, etc.

With a favorable development of events, it is possible for the cultures of the local and foreign populations to co - exist, interact and interpenetrate; if the situation is unfavorable, it is possible for conflicts to spread on national grounds, the outcome of which no one is able to determine.


1 Focus Migration. Country Profile: Spain. Hamburg, August 2008, N 6, p. 2.

2 El Pais, Madrid, 22.12.2000.

3 Data obtained by the author in 2008 at the Institute of National Statistics in Madrid (Institute Nacional de Estadistica).

4 Ibid.

5 West African Mobilities and Migration Policies of OECD Countries. OECD. 2008, p. 67.

6 El Pais, 13.07.2009.

7 Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntas Sociales. Secretaria de Estado de Immigrasion y Emigrassion. Anuario estadistico de Extranjeria. 2008.

8 El Pais, 19.02.2008.

9 Ibidem.

10 West African Mobilities and Migration Policies.., p. 49 - 50.

11 Focus Migration. Country Profile: Spain.., p. 8.

12 El Pais, 24.09.2009.

13 www.csif.org

14 El Pais, 24.09.2009.


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I. O. ABRAMOVA, SPAIN IS A NEW CENTER OF ATTRACTION FOR AFRICAN MIGRANTS // Stockholm: Swedish Digital Library (LIBRARY.SE). Updated: 13.08.2023. URL: https://library.se/m/articles/view/SPAIN-IS-A-NEW-CENTER-OF-ATTRACTION-FOR-AFRICAN-MIGRANTS (date of access: 22.05.2024).

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