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THE LOT OF A MUSLIM WOMAN: On THE LORD'S PLAN AND HUMAN INTENT (following in the footsteps of female revelations by Algerian women writers)


Doctor of Philological Sciences

...Nothing can
take away from me
The silence of the day
Or the light of the night-Paul


It would seem that the 50s-60s of the XX century are long gone - the time of the powerful flourishing of Algerian literature, illuminated by the dream of independence of the country, scorched by the fire of one of the most protracted anti - colonial wars (1954-1962). And the appeal of Algerian writers of that time to the poetry of the French poet Paul Eluard, whose name is inextricably linked with the era of Resistance to Fascism during the Second World War, was quite understandable. Assia Djebar, one of the first Algerian women to take up the pen to tell the world about her people, wrote these poems as the epigraph to her book Children of the New World:

not terrible. The coming day shines on them
night is not terrible for them, and our masters
Children of the new world united, - and the shadowTroubles is all in spite and strictly.

It is not necessary to specify who these masters were then: the French in that era - their own, for a short time, the Algerians-their own, for almost a hundred and thirty years... The main thing is that the people on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea dreamed of the coming of a New World, and therefore passionately and confidently waited for the Dawn of a New day, impatiently discerning the Light in the Night.

But now, almost half a century later, I am reading again the lines of Paul Eluard, which precede one of the most significant works of Algerian modernity - Maissa Bey's novel "In the Beginning was the Sea"2. I put them as an epigraph to this article, because they contain the main intonation of today's creativity of Algerians, especially characteristic of women writers.

Perhaps the era of waiting for Freedom and Happiness echoes the current one - the Night of the Past has once again descended over the country, plunging it into the horror of a new war*, this time with an enemy not someone else's, but their own, and who is right in this war, who is guilty - History will judge. It is no coincidence that the title of M. Bey's novel mentions "The Sea". It is a symbol of free space, a breath of hope that defined the era of the struggle for independence. 3 It once again signified the thirst for Happiness, the thirst for Freedom. 4 for a person burdened by the "system of prohibitions", the ascendancy of Islamic dogmas and the tendencies to eradicate "Western culture" in a country that has long become multicultural, having once completed its battle for independence and as a revolution of its own social foundations, giving a person, but especially a woman, hope for full rights, for the freedom of their own choice of the road of Life...


Maissa Bey will write about how hopes were destroyed, how the dream of Happiness was not fulfilled, how human dignity was trampled upon again, how Women were humiliated again, the ideals of the Revolution were forgotten, how the "Silence of the sea" gradually reigned, a deep Silence filled with human fear for Life, and a "cry of despair stuck in my throat". in their books 5. Vivid examples of them will be given on the pages of this magazine and confirmed by examples of Zineb Labidi's short story work. The desire to acquaint readers with these examples of modern Algerian prose is dictated not only by their special consonance with the era that our political scientists and sociologists have long been silent and wrote little about, but also by literary criticism almost completely forgotten about Algeria at the end of the XX-beginning of the XXI century. The point is not even in the consonance of the fates of the writers (Z. Labidi was born in 1946, and M. Bey-in 1950, and in their "first" profession they are teachers of the French language, and both began to be published at a time when it was French that was practically "eradicated" from circulation in the country during the period of increasing Islamism and tougher crackdowns on the francophone Algerian intelligentsia 6). Nor is it the evidence of their poignant storytelling skills: after all, Algerian literature as a whole is characterized by a high level of artistry (recall the works of Kateb Yassin, Mohamed Dib, Muloud Mammeri, Malek Haddad, Rashid Boujedra, Rashid Mimouni, Tahar Vattar and many other prominent prose writers and poets of 20th-century Algeria) .7 literature", a new wave of which, paradoxically, rose high precisely in difficult times for the country.-

* In 1989, terror broke out in Algeria, which lasted until the early 2000s, unleashed by the Islamic Salvation Front, but almost turned into a civil war, caused largely by political instability in the country, economic downturn, unemployment and official corruption.

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In the first decades of the XX century and in the first years of the XXI century, Algeria has long had a glorious tradition. It was here that the galaxy of names (both Muslim and Christian) that the country is proud of sparkled: Jamila Debesh, Fadma Amrush, Margarita Taos, Anna Greki, Assia Dzhebar. Today, women's names are becoming more and more vivid in the firmament of the artistic culture of "ethnic" Algerians, whose horizons of existence are now both on one side and on the other side of the Sea: Malika Mokkedem, Sonia Moumen, Latifa Mansouri, Farida Belgoul, Nina Buraoui, Djura, Zulika Boucourt, Leila Sebbar and many others whose work has been reported. write a lot 8.

But in my opinion, the short stories of Zineb Labidi and Maissa Bey have a special sound that has absorbed Assia Jebar's ability to hear the pulse of the era, the lyrical art of "female revelation", the" soul-filled flight "of Margarita Taos' imagination, the expressive tragedy of Nina Buraui, the melancholy of Leila Sebbar, and the artistic documentalism of Djura, and the inimitable skill of reincarnation in her heroine Farida Belgul...9 But the main thing, of course, remains their direct testimony, Maissa Bey and Zineb Labidi, their undisguised courage to "take the word" (as the Moroccan writer, winner of the Goncourt Prize Tahar Bendjelloun once said about the heroine of his novel "Harrouda") exactly where it was already practically forbidden, and not in the first place. especially for women.

Paraphrasing the well-known "execution cannot be pardoned", we can define the" formula "of collections of short stories (quite eloquently called by writers "News from Algeria", "Past through life"*, or a line of the old romance " The night was fragrant with Jasmine...") as "YOU CAN'T KEEP SILENT". Exactly. It is impossible to speak, because in the stories of the heroines of the writers ' works, the painful points of the female destiny are touched upon, defined by religion, tradition and a new war-a war of two different times that exist together, and therefore oppose each other: the past, still living in the present, and the present, which is trying to look to the future...

But you can not be silent, because "silence, - as it is said in one of the novels of M. Bay, - can crush". There is too much fear, too much pent-up anger and despair among those who suffer not only from what is happening around them, when blood is being shed everywhere, not only from their constant female humiliation, but also from the painful awareness of their "dishonor" by women, because the "norm of piety" is achieved by them at an incredible price of their humility with what seems to be they are unnatural, or even at the cost of passing away from life, which is offered "dishonored" as a sacrifice to God - "Most Merciful" and "Forgiving"...

Sometimes (as shown in M. Bay's novella "In the Silence of the Morning") the realization of the "impurity" of one's soul, filled with doubts about one's own rightness, but even worse, about the rightness of one's beloved, becomes akin to the loss of maiden innocence, and then the concept of "dishonor" can torment a woman, because she, a Muslim, cannot but know that only those women who are "pious" are pious. they understand that their husbands are always "superior in dignity" (Qur'an, Sura 2; verse 228-10), and therefore doubts about the dignity of her husband's intentions are perceived by the heroine as a grave sin. She, who did not follow her husband, who was threatened with death by terrorists, did not want to leave her home and take refuge (and maybe escape) with her beloved in someone else's, unwittingly accelerated his death, is now tormented by her "unholy" act no less than a girl with torn flesh by bandits, who does not know what is better-to hang herself as her friend in misfortune, or continue to live - "dishonored" among people who will never forgive her for the "evil" that deprived her of the "purity" that she was meant to observe (M. Bay's novella "In the Silence of the Night").

Silence** is unbearable, because it tears the soul of a person with a load of unspoken, hidden, sometimes "shameful", "forbidden". But also in the endless, "incessant" conversations about the misfortunes of the "country and people", in attempts to replace the word with the necessity of action, although it is realized by" speakers "as useless, there is a weight of emptiness, which also pulls the human soul into the abyss of despair from its civil "dishonor" (novella by M. A. Shishkin). ("Let's talk about something else!"). And the psychological study of the female soul suffering from its" dishonor "- the alleged "betrayal" of her husband; and the cruel realism of the sketch of the tortured body of a thirteen-year-old girl going to meet death to escape from her "uncleanness"; and the "chronicle of current events" condensed into an ugly grotesque salon chatter-the massacre of its victims (as a "disgrace" to the country itself), - everything becomes extremely accurate and important testimony of contemporaries about the state of society, which is experiencing a deep crisis of values. After all, when people who have already lived for fifty years in an independent, independent, rich in natural and human resources, once prosperous country, feel their life and fate as a "curse"11, forever weighing on the very history of the people, or as the inability to escape from humiliation and the constant threat of "dishonor", then there is no firmness in the foundations themselves life, its social, ethical, and spiritual foundations.

But people try to survive, even knowing that the price of such a life is too high, that their humiliation and humility with "evil" is too hard for the soul, and sometimes it is useless and dangerous. For it is impossible to believe a person who has somehow managed to "moderate his pride", to come to terms with what is contrary to his consciousness, contrary to reason, constrains both the flesh and the spirit. Therefore, the "rebels" are "warriors of Allah", having taken up the task of purifying society from the" filth "of its secularism, from the" infection "of Western norms of life and morality introduced into it, saving it from "dishonor" and "shamelessness", imposing prohibitions on the education of women,

* Both names can be translated in different ways ("Les nouvelles d'Algerie" by Maissa Bey as "Algerian Stories", and "PassagHres" by Zineb Labidi as "Met on the road"). However, it seems to me that the translation of titles proposed above is more consistent with the meaning of what is reported and summarized by writers.

** M. Bey interprets the word "silence "as" silence","silence".

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having ordered them to "cover up" again, wear a hijab, cover their heads, they do not believe the one who once taught them French at school, but now dressed as a "pious" Muslim woman (Zineb Labidi's novella "Resigned"). They will kill it, just as they kill all those who are considered guilty of the misfortunes and misfortunes of a people who have not overcome poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, diseases, mass exodus from the villages, emigration... Among their victims were the Algerian intelligentsia, a brave "spokesperson for the common misery" - just as Algerian teachers, poets, prose writers, and journalists considered themselves...

But even knowing that death can now wait for a person anywhere, wherever a bullet reaches or a knife slashes across the throat; even knowing that you are threatened with "divorce" or your husband's "excommunication", sending your wife to your parents ' home for disobedience, and therefore for "dishonor"; even accepting the postulate that you are not going to be able to do this. that "a woman is lower in dignity than a man; even realizing that your act-leaving home-can become your eternal shame and become a stigma of "dishonor" for your entire family, a woman can find the ability to overcome fear, step over the "Ban", forget for a while about the burning of shame for what they have done, for eating what is not allowed, and to give yourself up to the impulse of the soul, the longing of the body, the rapid rhythm of the heart, the call of Life, still pulsating on this earth.

That is why in Zineb Labidi's novels there are only "fleeting moments" of female existence, fixing individual states of female nature that are not intimidated by the rampant terror everywhere. Whether "Dancing" against the wishes of her husband at the wedding of her brother; whether "running away" from a completely prosperous home to meet the unknown, unable to withstand the" dictate "of her husband; whether reflecting on the reasons for her "humiliation" by a man, or not enduring the arrival of his fourth wife to the house; whether remembering the proud "disobedience" of her parents. their ancestors who suffered from foreign attacks; whether wearing a hijab - "like everyone else" - to blend in with the mass of women trying to use the traditional "closing" of the body as a "veil" from the threat of Death that reigned everywhere - the heroines of the stories of Z. Labidis are still in the space of Life one way or another, appreciating that moment of it, which gives even a brief, but such a joyful feeling of Freedom. Do I need to say how priceless this moment is?


However, the literature focused on the problem of women's freedom, both at the end of the XX century and at the beginning of the XXI century, cannot but raise the question of why the concept of "dishonor" is still cultivated in society, how real are the fears and fears, and most importantly, whether they are really connected with "prohibitions" a return to the "pure origins" preached by Islamic fundamentalists, who in one way or another have strengthened their influence on society almost everywhere in the Muslim world, fighting their battle to "purify the world that was rotten to the foundation" in the name of Allah? And, without ceasing to be surprised by the ever-increasing response, the special reaction of the artistic consciousness of Algerians, or rather, Algerians, whose writing "squad" not only did not fall silent, but even grew up, 12 not only did not lay down their weapons under the pressure of the "Islamists", but also honed it, demonstrating their skills, let us be surprised mainly the fact that the Muslim Holy Scripture contains no death threats to women, nor even hints at the need to belittle, oppress and deprive her of her freedom, if she wants to find it.

Do not be lazy to look at the Koran and hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad. Since" righteous "and" unrighteous " deeds in a world where Islam is the main religion have for some time been more and more often committed "in the name of Allah Almighty", it is sometimes imperative to compare the "Plan" of Allah with the "plan" of human actions. This makes it possible to distinguish between the original regulations, instructions, prescriptions and recommendations contained in the text of the Qur'an, and their "everyday" transformations, sometimes hypertrophied (and sometimes "erased").13 a centuries-old tradition, rooted in the people's customs (sometimes preserving pre-Islamic traditions of life, and therefore in their own way either strengthening or complementing the Islamic one). Here we can add quite patriarchal prejudices and beliefs that are not directly related to the" name of Allah", but are" projected " on public behavior and public consciousness in conjunction with religious ones.

We invite readers to refer to the Russian translation of the Arabic text of the Qur'an, made not so long ago, taking into account many other translations (and scientific interpretations) and published under the stamp of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Institute of Oriental Studies, 14 to fragments where it is somehow about the attitude towards women: Surah 2, verses: 148; 187; 215; 221; 228; 229; 231; 232; 233; 237; 240; surah 4, verses: 3; 4; 11; 15; 19; 20; 34; 128; 129; surah 24, verse 31; surah 33, verse 59; surah 65, verses 2; 6 7. There are quite a few of them, and I believe that in their own way they will reflect and bear witness not only to the historically concrete conditionality of the institutions and precepts defined by Islam, but also to the enduring meaning of the ontological opposition "man and woman", as well as to the essential unity of their universal purpose.

I do not rule out that the text of the Holy Scriptures may have missed a lot of things that could illustrate the topic we are considering, but even these references are quite eloquent.

In the hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad, there are no "deviations" from the Revelation given to Him by Allah, and the whole basic "gender paradigm"can be expressed here as well by the formula:"My mercy prevails over my anger"15.

Finding nothing particularly threatening or intimidating in the instructions of Allah (the punishment of Doomsday is for all sinners), and nothing particularly unnatural in His prohibitions, I will return to the "female revelations" in the novels of modern Algerian writers and ask myself why the Dawn is so bitter, and why it is so bitter.

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The day of women's life, recorded by artists, why is the Night so oppressive, descending in the souls of heroines and Zineb Labidi, and Maissa Bey, and other modern Algerian writers? Why did their very life turn into "fetters", and there is no end to the Path that was once, back in the early 50s of the XX century., defined by the heroine of the novel by the Moroccan writer Dries Shraibi "Simple past" (1953) as the path prepared for a Muslim woman: "Between the malaya prison (in the House) and a big prison " (in the surrounding world)?..

It was in the 50s of the last century that Algerian women tried to destroy the walls of at least one of these prisons-the House where they experienced the "oppression" of the male part of their family, which did not allow them to live as girls and women of another world lived almost next door to them: French women, other Europeans of the colonial "community". Co-existence on the same land could not but affect the self-perception of Muslim women in the space of the "modernity" they observed, despite all the barriers of confessional and social differences.

But the Algerian War of Independence in a strange way combined the eternal human principles of protecting the fatherland, native land, native people with the ancient customs of this land-restoring the" honor " of the family, clan, tribe, 16 revenge for their dignity and "property" violated by the enemy-which have long been associated not only with the concept of "territorial integrity", but also with the concept of "territorial integrity". and with women's "chastity", equally protected as treasures, within the limits that prohibited the violation of their "purity". (The Islamic religion only "absorbed" the ancient customs and concepts that already existed in many countries where it penetrated, strengthening the "prohibitions" by the command of the Almighty and Almighty.) And a person's crossing of the boundaries of what is "allowed" has always been perceived by the people as a state of discord of the foundations, foundations, and collapse of the "pillars" on which traditional Eastern society, unlike the Western one, was based, and to this day it is still reluctant to" let in "the so-called "modern" norms of the moral, social, and political world order.

It is not surprising, therefore, that Algeria's independence in 1962 did not bring any radical changes in the traditional way of life of the people, although it was women who nevertheless became freer, gaining access to education and many civil rights that were previously denied, including the right to find a profession, to work independently, which means going outside the House. However, the main thing in their life remained: marriage and the family, where rarely anyone thought to "deal" with age-old customs, where "male superiority" somehow (or to some extent), but determined the dependence of the daughter in the family on her father and brothers, their choice of a groom for her, and "submission" a wife to her husband, and his pre-emptive right to divorce, and to remarry while maintaining the marriage with the first wife... And still a woman here (as elsewhere in the Muslim world) will wait for the birth of her son 17-the future guardian of the "clan and tribe", the defender of both her mother and the family's property, and the "purity" of her sisters, whose main purpose is to marry without violating the main thing: neither her own nor her own. his (parent's) or husband's family's property, called "honor"...


But perhaps this "principle of superiority", which condemns a woman to dependence on a man, is not so contradictory and inappropriate today, if the heroines of Zineb Labidi are "widowed", "married", "humiliated", and "running away" - all of them, in one way or another, feeling the strengthening of their power. the oppression of prohibitions, the power of prejudices and ancient customs, their inferiority and even inferiority, not that they accept the age-old tradition of life, but return to their circles in one way or another: the widow will rely on her eldest son; two of the three wives will "return to the kitchen" in anticipation of the fourth; the future mother-in-law already feels the opportunity to express the daughter-in-law has her "complaints" and her displeasure-otherwise, how can she overcome her eternal "humiliation" in her husband's house? Well, the "running away" will never run away, despite the already almost open door of her house: because she knows for sure that the secret lover will not be worthy of her choice - she will never break the prohibition to marry the one she "knew before the wedding"..(Love here is by no means a "child of Freedom" - it has always been aware of the limits of what is allowed by religion and custom. And the woman paid heavily for their violation...) But, after all, a woman who voluntarily put on a hijab ("like everyone else"), who perfectly understands the paradoxical nature of this strange fashion for an ancient, almost sacred attribute, born of fear, and not the joy of "updating" her appearance, suddenly felt more free, and once even I allowed myself "complete freedom" - I put a hijab on my naked body...

So what's the big deal? Why is it that for almost seven decades, since Leyla Debesh's novel "Aziza"was written, 18 the chain of women's testimonies (within the framework of fiction only) about the "despotism" of Islamic prohibitions, about the cruel power of the Tradition of Life, but at the same time about the incessant thirst of women to change its narrow, narrow space has not been interrupted?"riverbed", go out into the open, where the chest breathes freely and the eye is open to distant horizons?.. Why these "tears of the soul", suffering and dreaming of Freedom in the years of colonization of the country by France, and in the years of the struggle for independence, and in the years of "building a New Life", and in the years that gave the country the opportunity to control its fate and the fruits of its political independence, and in the years of the "hangover" after the intoxication Victory, the expulsion of Strangers (colonialists and others like them), and in the years when the country unexpectedly gained a mass of enemies "internal", Its own, dissatisfied with either the new Government or the new Order, which did not save the people from poverty?19 After all, the leitmotif of numerous books has already been written by Maliki Mokkadem, Latifa Ben Mansour, Leila Marwan, Maissa Bey, Zineb Labidi, 20 and others. Algerians are the bitterness of failed Happiness, never found Freedom, the eternity of women's destiny, the irresistibility of the channel of Life in the shackles of the banks, on one side of the sea.

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one is the despotism of Tradition, the other is the dictate of modernity. But this is an inevitability... And women know it. Here it was and always will be. Therefore, the "married woman" will remain "married", dependent on the will of her husband, even if she rebels against his authority; the "widow" will remain a "widow", i.e. a woman who is somehow "flawed", especially "unsightly" to anyone, almost "unclean" - because she already had a " mannothing can save the "disgraced" or dishonored one-neither revenge for her honor violated by bandits, nor the duty of doctors trying to cure her soul shaken by misfortune. Exhausted by her "shame", she will save herself from her torment, and it is the Woman who will come to her aid, pointing to the exit from the hospital, leading to a gloomy ravine, leading to Death, because only she will save the girl from a life of "dishonor"... And the " hijab-wearing "one will still be killed: not because she "knew" strangers, but simply because she taught" foreign " language to Algerian children...

Therefore, in the books of Algerians - and challenge, and protest, and despair, and humility, and the search for compromise, and the eternal insatiability of the Thirst for "flight", the Dance of the soul and heart, and the Trembling of the body, hearing the pulse of the "primordial Life", feeling its rhythm... But most of all, they hate the Time of fear, bloody terror, who declared their merciless war not only on poverty, unemployment, official corruption, but also on "everything else". At this Time, the ancient plan of protecting the "Honor of the Tribe"as female chastity and the evil plan of "saving" the dignity of society from "uncleanness" came together in a deadly duel, understood both as non-belonging to the faith in Allah and as non-observance of His Teachings by believers in Him. But it is precisely in this Teaching, or rather even the Teaching of people to believe in His, Allah's Omnipotence and All-merciful Nature, to observe Piety for themselves and their families, to be able to protect their dignity and wealth, to help the poor and orphans, to try to live in peace with their wives, even with the "rejected" ones-it is difficult to find the threat of "disobedient" or a hint about the need to kill their newborn children and the cruelty of revenge on their loved ones... But it is fromThe heroines of Maissa Bey and Zineb Labidi's novels suffer from the Evil that is happening in the world around them and the fear that reigns everywhere, as do the heroines of Malika Mokkadem, Latifa Ben Mansour and Leila Marouane's novels. It is about this nightmare of a new war that has turned the beloved Algeria into a "place of execution", where only the "language of Death" triumphs, that Assia Djebar 22 wrote her new books, like many of her compatriots and compatriots who are now forced to live in exile...

But these books are not just evidence of the hopelessness of the War of Times-Past and Future, the endless collapse of Hopes and Ideals, the irresistibility of the Fate intended for a Woman. In them - the living breath of the Present, an attempt to remove the Veil of Silence from it and take a Word to say in the dark Night that the Thirst for Dawn does not run out in the soul of a person, that the heart of a woman still responds to the "rhythm of the earth", calling for Movement, for the joy of feeling the beating of Life,"taste of the Sea", the free expanse of which again and again gives rise to the dream of Happiness and Freedom. And most importantly-eternal Hope for the Future...

Djebar Assia. 1 Les enfants du Nouveau monde. P., 1962. Russian edition: And the coming day shines for them. Moscow, 1965. Translated by E. Lazebnikova.

Bey Maissa. 2 Au commencement etait la mer. P., 1996; 2003.

3 "Who remembers the Sea" (Qui se souvient de la mer. P., 1964) - this was the name of the novel by the classic Algerian literature M. Dib, who associated the era of the anti-colonial war with the metaphor of the Sea. Prozhogina S. V. Francophone Writers of the Maghreb in the 60s and 70s, Moscow, 1980.

4" La soif "("Thirst") was the title of Assia Djebar's first work (1957), which reflected the aspirations and hopes of the young generation of Algerians who were entering the threshold of a New Life. translation of the novel in: Assia Jebar. Izbrannoe [Selected works], Moscow, 1990).

Bey M. 5 Nouvelles d'Algerie. P.. 1998; Cette fille-Ia. P., 2001; Entendez-vous dans les montagnes. P., 2002; Sous le jasmin la nuit. P., 2004; Surtont ne te retourne pas. P., 2005 и др.

6 I have already told you about Assia Jebar's work "Oran, a Dead Language", which is partly devoted to this problem in the book " Love of the Earth "(Moscow, IV RAS, 2004).

7 For their creative work, see: Istoriya natsional'nykh literatury stran Maghreb [History of National Literatures of the Maghreb countries], Literature of Algeria (coll. of authors), Moscow, 1993.

8 See: Prozhogina S. V. Between the Mistral and Sirocco, Moscow, 1998; her: Immigrant Stories, Moscow, IV RAS, 2003; Women's portrait on the background of the East and West, Moscow, 2006 and others.

9 I am referring to the story "Georgette!"(1986), written on behalf of a little Algerian immigrant girl who shocked the French - speaking world.

10 But Christians also say, " To every man is Christ the head; to the woman the man is the head "(St. Paul, I Corinthians 11: 3).

11 This was the title of the last novel by Mimouni R., who died prematurely during the new Algerian war (La malediction. P., 1992).

12 A phenomenon typical of the Maghreb countries, observed both in Morocco and Tunisia, where women writers are becoming more and more numerous. See about this: Asia and Africa Today, 2008, N 10, pp. 70-74.

I am referring to the murders and massacres of people, often innocent, who are neither zealous supporters nor haters of both the official authorities in the country and the forces of the" Islamic renaissance " resorting to terror: the latter's actions are particularly at odds with the Koranic precepts [see, for example, Sura 5, Verse 32: "If someone kills a person not in revenge for [killing] another person and [not in revenge] for violence on earth, then this is equivalent to killing all people" (the word "violence" - ar-fasadun-I. Y. Krachkovsky translates the word "corruption", M. Ali - ... "harm, trouble", Maududi - ... "general disorder", Blacher - ... "indignation" [(see: M.-N. O. Osmanov's commentary to the transl. Qur'an, p. 443); Sura 17, verse 33: "Do not kill a person except by right, because Allah has forbidden it" (meaning the right of retribution, execution or battle - p.492)].

14 Koran (translated from Arabic, and comments by M.-N. O. Osmanov). Moscow, 1995.

15 Hadith 1. Quote from Al-ahadith al-qudsiyah. Hadiths of the Prophet. Al-Furqan center. Damascus, 1419 (AH) (translated by V. Porokhova).

16 See for details on the concept of "tribal honor": Prozhogina S. V. The position of Muslim women in the borders of a multicultural society / / Islam and social development at the beginning of the XXI century. Moscow, 2005, pp. 265-281.

17 "Riches and sons are the adornment of life in this world" - the Qur'an only confirmed the age-old confidence of the people of this earth (Sura 18, verse 46).

18 About him, see Prozhogina S. V. Women's portrait on the background of the East and West.., pp. 16-41.

19 The Algerian literature as a whole kept a close eye on everything that was happening in the country and tried to understand the reasons for the new war associated with the strengthening of Islamic fundamentalism (see the novels of the 80s - 90s and the beginning of the XXI century by R. Boujedra, R. Mimouni, M. Dib, A. Djebar, etc.).

20 See, for example, Mokkedem M. Les hommes qui marchent. P., 1990, L'interdite. R, 1992, N'zid. P., 2006; Bey M. Au commencement etait la mer. P., 1996; Cette fille-la. P., 2000, Surtout ne te retounepas. P., 2005; Marouane L. La jeune fille et la mere. P., 2005; Ben Mansouri L. L'annee de G eclipse. P., 2001 and many others.

21 The title of R. Mimuni's book L'honneur de la tribu, published during the years of terror that began in the country (1989), is characteristic.

22 See Djebar A. Le blanc de l'Algerie; Vaste la prison; Oran, la langue morte; Morte sans sepulture et al., published in the last decade of the 20th century, and Ben Mansour L. L'annee de Feclipse. P., 2001.


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Alex Hirshman
Geteborg, Sweden
132 views rating
27.07.2023 (299 days ago)
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