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East-West

Zhang Longyan (b. 1909) is one of the most famous figures in the Far East, whose scientific research and teaching practice, as well as active diplomatic activity, contributed to the promotion of the art of Chinese calligraphy in the West in the XX century. Zhang Longyan's calligraphic works, performed at a high artistic level, develop the legacy of traditional calligraphic aesthetics and show its relevance for the Chinese culture of the XX century.

For thousands of years, calligraphy has played a style-forming role in the field of fine arts in China and has enjoyed the highest cultural status. As the most complete embodiment of the national aesthetic, it has retained its leading position among the plastic arts of China to this day. There was no decline in the development of the calligraphic tradition, and its early achievements were continued with dignity by a whole galaxy of masters both in China and abroad. Years of life of many talented artists cover the entire century, and their main creative success falls on an advanced age. Calligraphy classes helped them overcome the challenges of a dramatic century and reach the heights of creativity that inspire younger generations of calligraphers. The vast majority of the major masters of the twentieth century never left China and therefore were not directly familiar with Western art, which did not prevent them from deeply reflecting the spiritual quest of their modern era. However, some calligraphers were forced to emigrate to the West, and the issue of national cultural identity became particularly acute for them. Zhang Longyan is one of those expatriate artists for whom immersion in Western culture has only helped strengthen their commitment to the national artistic tradition.

Difficulties in the perception of calligraphic plastic art by the Western audience led to the fact that Western art studies only in the last quarter of the XX century began to systematically study this type of art. Last but not least, this fact is connected with the fundamental ethnocentrism of Chinese culture, which blocks the missionary activity of its representatives. It is no coincidence that Japanese and partly Korean masters, who conducted visiting master classes, were active propagandists of Far Eastern calligraphy in the 20th century. As in the distant past, Chinese luminaries do not seek to transfer their knowledge outside the Middle Kingdom, although they do not refuse a few lessons to a persistent foreigner in their homeland. Since the 1930s, the main role in attracting the attention of Western audiences to Chinese calligraphy has been played by representatives of the Chinese political emigration, who tried to preserve the national culture for the younger generation.

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emigration communities and interested in explaining its features to the Western world.

One of those who continued to popularize the art of Chinese calligraphy in the second half of the century was Zhang Longyan, the author of a number of well-known publications, lectures, speeches and interviews. In the 1960s and 1970s, Zhang Longyan was a prominent figure in Taiwan's diplomatic world and an influential public figure. In this sense, he adequately represented the centuries-old national tradition of combining political and artistic service to society .1 Fulfilling the Covenant

1 In the history of calligraphy in the 20th century, the well-established close relationship between political power and the art of calligraphy has manifested itself in the context of modernization in two interrelated aspects at the same time: as the dictate of power over the art of calligraphy and as the dominance of calligraphy over this power, whose representatives are forced to win their political leadership, among other During the 20th century, the social functions of calligraphy were modified three times in accordance with the historical stages of modernization. At the first stage, calligraphy served as an art form that united politicians of all directions, allowing even radicals to confirm their national identity in a society whose broad masses were not yet familiar with Western cultural values. Calligraphy was the main focus of translating national plastic archetypes in the context of changing traditional foundations and the rapid penetration of Western technologies and lifestyles. In the second phase, the Maoist regime used calligraphy as an effective ideological weapon. Even during the years of the Cultural revolution, calligraphy remained in a special position, because the very essence of this art did not allow for a break in continuity. In the third stage, calligraphy and power were not as directly connected as they were under Mao Zedong. Some of the power functions of calligraphy have been transferred to television and the press, although the calligraphy of political leaders still increases the legitimacy of their influence on the country in public opinion.

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According to Confucius, Zhang Longyan studies constantly, regardless of age and numerous merits. He fruitfully combines an exemplary knowledge of Chinese culture and a deep, direct acquaintance with the culture of the West. The modernization of traditional cultural life, which was perceived by many Chinese intellectuals as a conflict between East and West, was interpreted by Zhang Longyan as a historically inevitable form of cultural dialogue, in which traditional aesthetic principles are recognized as an important element of national identity.

Zhang Longyan was born in the vicinity of Nanjing. By Chinese standards, he started learning calligraphy late, only at the age of 19. His passion for calligraphy was instilled in him by his father, who was a seal cutter. The combination of political ambition and artistic talent determined Zhang Longyan's entire life. He started practicing calligraphy while studying at Nanjing's Jingling University, where he majored in political science. At that time, he became a student of the prominent calligrapher Hu Xiaoshi (1888 - 1962), who taught a course on the history of Chinese calligraphy at Zhongyang University in the 1930s. The collapse of unified state power in China after the Xinhai Revolution (1911) contributed to the rise of regional centers that flourished during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Almost every major master was the leader of an independent school in the province. These schools were sometimes opposed to each other, then united in broader directions. One of these masters was Hu Xiaoshi, who represented a direction that, in contrast to the Orthodox, focused on the creative development of tradition. Hu Xiaoshi was a talented teacher. According to Zhang Longyan's recollections, his mentor made sure that the student himself formulated the question that interested him. At the same time, he was able at the right time, without answering directly, to suggest an answer that determined the further development of a creative personality for decades. Zhang Longyan would later pass on his reverence for this outstanding master to his many disciples.

The fact that in the 1930s the Chinese press launched a heated discussion of the problems of the calligraphic community was also of great importance for the formation of Zhang Longyan as a future historian of Chinese calligraphy. Thanks to the introduction to Western aesthetics, the terminology stock of the calligraphic tradition was updated. The need to present the history and theory of calligraphy in a modern language became more and more obvious.

After being in exile in Europe in 1949, Zhang Longyan enthusiastically learns Western culture. At the University of Nancy (France), he receives a doctorate in law. Then he has internships at the universities of Berlin, Oxford and Harvard. In the 1960s, Zhang Longyan studied Western art history in Switzerland. Later, St. John's University in New York will award him the title of Professor Emeritus. After settling in Taiwan, Zhang Longyan would later become the head of the Institute of Chinese Culture. At one time, he was the head of the Department of Education and International Cultural Relations of the Ministry of Education of Taiwan. In 1966-1971, he headed one of the UNESCO commissions in Paris. Fluent in English, German and French, Zhang Longyan has been actively engaged in diplomatic activities for several decades, primarily in cultural cooperation.

It is significant that Zhang Longyan's highly scholarly publications of the 1960s and 1980s addressed to Chinese specialists focused on the masters who aroused the greatest interest among Western audiences, namely Huaixu (7357-800?), Su Shi (1036-1101), Mi Fu (1052-1108), and Huang Tingjian (1050-1105). In 1971, his work "Chinese Calligraphy" was published, which was immediately reprinted in French in Paris-

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in Russian. In 1989, Zhang Longyan's monograph "Four Millennia of the History of Chinese Calligraphy" was published. In 1990, this book was published in English, translated by P. Miller, a disciple and close friend of Zhang Longyan (Chang Leon, 1990). In this monograph, Zhang Longyan continues the line of publications by Chinese authors such as Jiang Yi [Yee Chiang, 1938], Chen Zhimai [Ch'en Chihmai, 1966], and T. Lai [Lai, 1975], intended for both Chinese emigration and Western readers.

Understanding the difficulties encountered by Western visual artists in understanding ancient Chinese calligraphy monuments, Zhang Longyan presented the history of Chinese calligraphy in reverse chronological order: from the masters of the Qing Dynasty to the monuments of the 2nd millennium BC. Such a structure of the book allows the Western reader to first experience the peculiarities of calligraphic plasticity on well-preserved original monuments, and then proceed to get acquainted with the legendary masterpieces of antiquity preserved in copies and impressions. By suggesting that the reader "move backwards", in the reverse order of historical epochs, Zhang Longyan gives him the opportunity to more acutely feel the continuity of Chinese calligraphy. He correctly calculates the effect that the very fact of the four-thousand-year duration of the calligraphic tradition has on Western intellectuals.

Zhang Longyan writes his text as a commentary on a large number of illustrations, giving monuments a leading role in influencing the reader. Despite the brevity of the text, the content of the email is limited. Following the tradition of ancient treatises, the author only fixes the main topics of the information space, leaving most of them undisclosed. Zhang Longyan's text is addressed to both an amateur and a specialist at the same time. The first person is interested in it, the second-introduces unexpected and important details. A skilfully selected mosaic of facts gives the impression of a majestic whole-the calligraphic tradition as such.

Years of living in the West convinced Zhang Longyan of the irremediable difference between Chinese and Western visual cultures. However, this difference does not exclude the possibility of dialogue, and the reason for this, Zhang Longyan believes, is the visual skills developed by the modernist aesthetics of the XX century. Zhang Longyan's article "On the Perception of Chinese Calligraphy", which was immediately translated into English, is of particular importance for promoting the art of Chinese calligraphy. In it, he explains to the Western audience how to get an aesthetic impression of works of Chinese calligraphy without knowledge of hieroglyphics. Zhang Longyan writes: "The value of the drawings of outstanding masters lies in their high skill and confidence of execution, in the quality of refined rhythmic movement of lines, in the balance of spatial compositions, in the harmonious structure of works. Given the ideas outlined above, it is possible to perceive the art of Arabic (Muslim) calligraphy, as well as Chinese calligraphy, without knowing these languages themselves "[cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 34]. Zhang Longyan refers to the authoritative opinion of Zhang Huaiguan (worked in 720-750), who emphasized that "a true connoisseur is able to feel the spirit of a calligraphic work, even without distinguishing the forms of hieroglyphs" [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 33].

Drawing on the aesthetic statements about the beauty and expressiveness of abstract forms by Wassily Kandinsky, Henri Matisse, Paul Klee, Pierre Soulage, and Fernand Leger, Zhang Longyan tries to introduce the Western reader to the world of calligraphic aesthetics. At the same time, he clearly identifies the difference between Eastern and Western artistic principles: "Chinese calligraphers do not have the same degree of artistic freedom as Western abstract expressionists! Chinese cal li-

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graphy, especially the handwriting of xing-shu 2 or cao-shu 3 , which I will venture to call ordinary writing and shorthand, can inspire Western artists as very free forms, as something new and interesting. Because calligraphy should be readable, the best thing a calligrapher can do is demonstrate his or her training, his or her abilities in composition and spatial organization, his or her mood and personality. A Chinese calligrapher may be an expressionist, but not an abstract expressionist in the Western sense of the term." by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 36].

In this article, Zhang Longyan explains the key aspects of calligraphic plastic art. Regarding the brushwork technique (yoon bi), he writes: "When we read that features in calligraphy should be 'light as a cicada's wing', or heavy 'like swirling clouds' or 'falling boulders', we understand that the ways of expressing a calligrapher's feelings and emotions are inexhaustible" [cit. by: Lungu yangjin..., 1999(1), p. 34]. Zhang Longyan refers to the well - known theorist and calligrapher Sun Qianli (648-703?), who, in his famous work "Preface to the Annals of Calligraphy" (Shu pu xu), writes about the norms of composition (jieti). wrote: "First, they learn to write the character, placing the features evenly and consistently. Then they learn how to make the composition unusual and even ugly and ugly. When this level is reached, they return to balanced and correct compositions "[cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 35]. Explaining the spatial arrangement of signs(bubai), Zhang Longyan appeals to music associations of calligraphic plastics: "A piece of calligraphy is like a song: every feature is like a key on a piano keyboard; like a string or a musical chord. The relationships between the signs and columns create the melody, and then the whole song" [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 35].

Zhang Longyan's observation is also important: "Artists of the gesture painters movement, artists of the action painters movement, and Tashism representatives create amazing works that are associated by the audience with the art of the East or Chinese calligraphy, but there is no relationship between them" [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 39]. Zhang Longyan, like most Chinese experts, believes that a Western artist can draw on Chinese calligraphy patterns, but is unable to imitate them.

It is significant that, like all Chinese experts who write about Chinese calligraphy for Western audiences, Zhang Longyan does not adhere to a single style of explanation. Having said a separate provision for the Western amateur, he immediately moves to a level of conversation that is accessible only to a sophisticated Chinese professional, which plunges the Western reader into a state of helpless bewilderment. Such a game of either disclosing information or hiding it is typical of Chinese pedagogical traditions, which focus on active speculation of the knowledge offered to students. However, when the person receiving the information belongs to a non-Chinese culture, this results in misunderstanding and provides a wide margin for arbitrary interpretation.

At the initiative of Zhang Longyan, an Institute for the Study of Chinese Calligraphy is being established in Taiwan. During the 1980s and 1990s, the calligrapher organized many exhibitions not only in Taiwan, but also abroad, especially in the United States. In 1999, Taipei hosted a retrospective exhibition of his works from 1964 to 1998, dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the master [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999 (1)]. The motto of the exhibition was Zhang Longyan's words: "Old age has come, but I still love calligraphy."

2 shin-shu handwriting occupies an intermediate position between the statutory handwriting and cursive writing, since some of the dots and lines are written with the brush off, and some are written together. This makes handwriting fast but easy to read types of writing.

3 The handwriting of cao-shu is cursive; in it, all the features of a single sign or a whole column of signs are written together with a single brush movement, which requires special preparation for reading the text.

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Among Zhang Longyan's generation of masters, handwriting universalism is not as common as in the old days. Zhang Longyan not only managed to achieve outstanding skill in the handwriting of Xing shu, kai shu4 and li shu5, but also created their original versions. The master's stylistic preferences have changed over the years. In the 1960s and 1980s, he was strongly influenced by Huang Tingjian (1050-1105). From his youth to the 1980s, the legacy of Mi Fu (1052-1108) was of particular importance to the calligrapher. As a result of studying the works of these two outstanding Song calligraphers for so long, Zhang Longyan has become an authoritative expert and an expert on their heritage. The influence of other luminaries of the tradition on his style in the handwriting of shin-shu and kai-shu was manifested only sporadically. Sometimes it is Tang Li Bei-hai (678-747), the coryphaeus of Sung poetry Su Shi (1036 - 1101) or Wu Ju (XII century), who was a follower of Mi Fu. In the 1960s, several works were created in the style of the famous calligrapher Wang Xizhi (IV century). He also turned to the calligraphy of Ni Zan (1301-1374). Zhang Longyan's excellent knowledge of tradition allowed him to always accurately find "friends through the ages" and be inspired by their examples in the course of his own creative experiments.

In the mid-1980s, the master wrote a series of works in the handwriting of shin-shu in the author's "transparent ink" technique. In developing this technique, Zhang Longyan used the techniques of ink tone variation used by famous calligraphers of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644): Dong Qichang (1555-1636), Zhang Ruitu (1570-1641), and Wang Do (1592-1652). In the masters of the past, the change in ink shades occurred as a result of the exhaustion of ink in the brush when writing, as well as when using the fei bai6. Zhang Longyan paints with low-dilution ink, which gives a variety of shades of gray, reminiscent of picturesque blurring. Thanks to this, the features prescribed with a brush filled with ink solution acquire an unusual transparency. This makes visible the intersections of lines, all the returning movements of the brush tip, as well as ink smudges inside the line. Sometimes the master re-prescribes individual features, while allowing some shifts to accentuate transparent layers of mascara. For Zhang Longyan, it is important to identify the spatial movements of the brush, and he turns his features into a kind of "foggy trace" of pulsating movement, in the trajectory of which a unique creative impulse expressed itself.

The technique of writing with" transparent ink " seems careless and arbitrary, but it requires the highest skill from the calligrapher in controlling the pressure and speed of movement of the brush filled with a liquid ink solution. The transparency of the ink exposes the work of the brush and its power over the compositional structure of the work. Zhang Longyan's brushwork technique is called qin zong (doel, "release birds"). This means, according to the master himself, that "there is not a single feature in which there is no internal vibration (doel, "wobbling". - V. B.), as well as satisfaction radiated [from the movement of the brush] "[Lungu yanjin..., 1999(2), p. 9]. Transparent ink swells inside the features are formed as a result of such a vibrating movement with the brush 7 .

In some works, Zhang Longyan emphasizes the effect of ink transparency by using paper with texts in European fonts. In some cases, the calligrapher writes on the back of a sheet of typewritten Latin text, which, when turned upside down, is barely discernible through translucent paper, as, for example, in a work of art.

4 The handwriting of kai-shu is legal and forms the basis for a large number of typographic fonts.

5 The handwriting of li-shu can be called "proto-articular" or an archaic version of the statutory one. It is distinguished from the usual statutory format by its elongated horizontal format, elongated horizontal and folding lines with significantly expanded endings, especially in the right-hand folding ones.

6. Fei bai ("flying white") they are distinguished by white gaps inside the lines that occur due to the fact that when you quickly run the brush, the ink does not have time to completely paint over the shape of the graphic element.

7 Later, Zhang Longyan stops working in the "transparent ink" technique, probably because of its obvious picturesqueness.

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with the hua character ("painting"), where he used a sheet sealed on both sides. The contrast of the hieroglyph with the typewritten font is emphasized by three author's white-mark seals 8 . Dark lines of European text enhance the transparency effect of the hieroglyphic sign features. Typewritten Latin script is perceived as a kind of backstage against which the spatial dynamics of hieroglyphic cursive unfolds.

Do not think that the meaning of this method of writing is to contrast the spirituality of hieroglyphic features with the monotony of a typewritten Latin font. For an intellectual like Zhang Longyan, such an obvious comparison is of little interest. The tonality of the highlighted ink is enriched by the banding of the background, which is sometimes darkened by lines of Western text. Thanks to the" alignment "of the Latin text, hieroglyphic features seem to "hang" in the space of the sheet. However, in the works of this series, the Latin script looked too shabby compared to the possibilities of hieroglyphic plastic. Perhaps for this reason, these experiments of Zhang Longyan are only an episode in his various creative pursuits.

The fascination with" transparent ink "in semi-articular handwriting occurred in parallel with the growing interest of the master in the opposite technique of "thick ink", in which ink is diluted in a small amount of water. Since the late 1980s, "thick ink" has dominated Zhang Longyan's work, especially in Li-shu's handwriting.

Zhang Longyan's skill in proto-articular handwriting was refined by studying many ancient stelae, among which such monuments as the rock calligraphy of Shi Men Song (148), the stelae of Li ji bei (156), Hua shan bei (165) and Zhang Qian bei (186) were of particular importance for the formation of his individual style.His style is influenced by the monuments of the Northern Wei (386-534) and Northern Qi (550-577) dynasties, which is especially noticeable in the sheet of 1980 Chengxing ("Satisfied heart") (fig. 3).

The tradition of very thick ink painting dates back to the tenth-century Taoist priest Chen Tuan. The high concentration of pigment gives the mascara a special viscosity and requires additional effort from the master when running with a brush. Features written in this ink acquire greater density and weight, which corresponds to the plastic "protostav". Zhang Longyan expertly uses the resistance of the ink to express the power of the brush movement. The calligrapher diversifies the outlines of firmly written features, making them sometimes clear, sometimes vague, which enhances the overall dynamics of the composition. Zhang Longyan changes the standard ending of the features, writing them either abruptly blunt, or massively blurred. "Muscularity" (zhou) of signs corresponds to a strong " backbone "(gu). Each feature is distinguished by its own elasticity. The extraordinary intensity of the black tone creates a kind of counter-space inside the points and features, which is additional to the space of the light background. The energetic fullness of the features created by the hand of an 80-year-old master is striking. The calligrapher's works confirm his theoretical postulate: "Energy-chi depends on spirituality (shen), not on form (xing)" [Longgu yanjin..., 1999(2), p.13].

Zhang Longyan intelligently experiments in the field of mastering the polar qualities of carcass: its air discharge with liquid dilution and its dense volume with thick dilution. The wizard states: "The understanding of the tao of calligraphy is threefold: the brushwork technique (yun bi), the composition of hieroglyphic features (jieti), and inter-sign intervals (bu-bai you). I also add a fourth aspect - the use of ink (yun mo)" [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(2), p. 13].

In the eighth decade of his life, Zhang Longyan is fluent in all calligraphic handwriting. It reaches a special expressiveness in the statutory handwriting.

8 White-sign seals have a red background and white hieroglyphs.

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The horizontal wall scroll by Tsao shi ku (1998) demonstrates two of the master's leading creative principles (Figure 4). The first principle is expressed by the formula sha zhi ("cut through the paper") and it means that the signs do not lie on the surface of the paper, but rather go inside the sheet. Zhang Longyan not only paraphrases the traditional expression of bi li ru zhi ("the power of the brush penetrates the paper"), but also enriches it with new content. In his interpretation, the surface of the paper is disturbed not only by the brush, but also by ink. The second principle, po kun ("holes in the void"), concerns the background's intrusion into the world of ink. It also goes back to the old expression qingsheng chu zhi ("the divine appears out of paper"). Zhang Longyan is guided by the image set by his teacher Hu Hsiao-shi: the gaps of the sky among the branches of a tree. Features are associated with branches, and the sky is associated with a white paper background. The task of the calligrapher is to combine the blackness of ink and the whiteness of paper as harmoniously as when looking at the sky from under the crown of a spreading tree.

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Zhang Longyan's version of the legal handwriting goes back to ancient stelae. In his instructions to his students, the master notes that this handwriting was made with brushes made of sheep's or wolf's wool during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). When engraving a piece of art on a stone, the shape of its features changed under the influence of a chisel. While studying the stele, Zhang Longyan tried to catch the nuances of the original brushwork, bypassing the distortion of the chisel. In his own work, he seeks to embody with a brush the nuances of plastic action of a chisel that reproduces ancient originals. Thus, he closes the circle of plastic associations, the historical content of which makes up the intellectual program of the work. The work is complemented by three author's seals. The motto of the white seal in the lower left corner-Hai nep tsun zhi-ji tianya ruo-chi lin-translates as " Within the seas is self-awareness, the edge of the heavens is like the edge [of the horizon]." At the same time, the expression "inside the seas (hai nep)..." indicates China, and the word lin means territorial neighborhood. The text of the press indicates both the self-sufficiency of the national cultural tradition and the need for a broad cultural horizon.

The leading topic of Zhang Longyan's theoretical reasoning is the problem of the deep relationship of different types of art, which is defined by the term zong Xian ("universal relationship"). The calligrapher continues to develop the traditional thesis passed down to him by his teacher Hu Xiaoshi about the primordial unity of the art of calligraphy and painting. Hu Xiaoshi was saying: "Calligraphy and painting are identical in brushwork techniques." Zhang Longyan is convinced that " through reflection and meditation, the eyes can hear and the ears can see." by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 13]. Zhang Longyan's calligraphy, as well as the works of luminaries of the calligraphic tradition, has rich acoustic associations. The dynamics of traits are "heard" either by musical chords, or by natural sounds. Zhang Longyan usually accompanies calligraphy classes with students by playing the Chinese zither (qin). Its

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he explains the position as follows: "Poetry is like painting, and painting is like poetry. Famous painting is based on the methods of calligraphy. The tao of calligraphy contains music, and the tao of music contains architecture. It is also said that "looking at the sword dance, you will learn the rules of the brush; listening to the flowing stream, you will also learn the rules of the brush "" [cit. by: Lungu yanjing..., 1999(1), p. 13].

Zhang Longyan is one of those who laid the foundation for the school of teaching calligraphy in Taiwan and defined its high level. He demanded that the explanation of the basics of the art of calligraphy be "true, deep, high and perfect" [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999 (1), p. 13]. The master says about himself: "I am not a calligrapher, I am one of those who teach calligraphy... Everything I set out to do was due to the desire to fulfill what my mentor Hu Xiaoshi taught me - to understand at least some of the principles of the tao in myself and share it with others "[cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 17]. "Have common sense and non-rigid norms, learn from those who create change and find spiritual sources" - this is Zhang Longyan's command to his students [cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 27].

For Zhang Longyan's students and admirers, his extraordinary longevity and creative activity are directly related to his constant and intense calligraphy practice. During the classes, the master says: "Calligraphers are deeply convinced that the contemplation of calligraphy (du shu) can not only "change the energy-qi and physiology-zhi", but also "cultivate the true energy-qi of Heaven and Earth". Through the knowledge of calligraphy, one can "reach the principle (li)". True achievement of the principle naturally strengthens the energy-qi "[cit. by: Lungu yanjin..., 1999(1), p. 13].

In the second half of the 20th century, two opposing camps emerged among Chinese calligraphers in the PRC, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Hong Kong: the traditionalists, who defended strict adherence to the norms of the past, and the avant - gardists, who often conducted very controversial experiments with materials and handwriting programs. Zhang Longyan, both as a calligrapher and as a scholar, has a reasonable middle ground. Combining such polar trends as politics and art, traditional Chinese education and the latest Western ones throughout his life, Zhang Longyan expresses the peculiarities of the national mentality more fully than the stagnant traditionalists. At the same time, he is far from the extremes of the calligraphic avant-garde and with a soft smile firmly opposes all the arts of Western postmodernism. This is a variant of Master Zhang Longyan's "middle way", which was adopted by a significant number of Chinese calligraphers in the 20th century, which ensured both the continuity of the calligraphic tradition and its high artistic achievements in the radically changed social conditions.

list of literature

Longgu yanjin: Zhang Longyan shufa jiushi huiguzhan (Glory for all time: the calligraphy of Zhang Longyan-catalog of a retrospective exhibition dedicated to the calligrapher's ninety-year anniversary). Taipei: Shibogu-an, 1999 (1).

Longgu yanjin: Zhang Longyan shufa lunshu wenji (Fame for all time: Zhang Longyan-about calligraphy. Collection of articles, arguments, and statements). Taipei: Shiboguan, 1999 (2).

Chang Leon L.Y. Four Thousand Years of Chinese Calligraphy. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Ch'en Chih-mai. Chinese Calligraphers and their Art. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1966. Lai T.C. Chinese Calligraphy. An Introduction. Seattle-London: University of Washington Press, 1975.

Yee Chiang. Chinese Calligraphy: An Introduction to Its Aesthetic and Technique. Londre: Methuen, 1938; 3rd edition, rev. and enl. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1973.


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Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

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